Primary Lens Luxation (PLL) is a well-recognised, painful and blinding inherited eye condition that affects many breeds of dog, particularly terrier and terrier-type breeds including (but not restricted to) Miniature bull terriers, Tibetan terriers, Jack and Parson Russell terriers, Lancashire Heelers and Chinese Crested dogs, also the Australian Cattle Dog, Jagd Terrier, Patterdale Terrier, Rat Terrier, Sealyham Terrier, Tenterfield Terrier, Toy Fox Terrier, Volpino Italiano, Welsh Terrier, Wire-haired Fox Terrier and Yorkshire Terrier.
In affected dogs the zonular fibres which support the lens breakdown or disintegrate, causing the lens to fall into the wrong position within the eye. If the lens falls into the anterior chamber of the eye glaucoma and loss of vision can quickly result.
Scientists at the AHT have identified a mutation that is associated with the development of PLL in several breeds of dog. The DNA test we are now offering examines the DNA from each dog being tested for the presence or absence of this precise mutation. It is thus a ‘mutation-based test’ and not a ‘linkage-based test’
Breeders will be sent results identifying their dog as belonging to one of three categories:
CARRIER: these dogs have one copy of the mutation and one normal copy of DNA. Our research has demonstrated that carriers have a very low risk of developing PLL. The majority of carriers do not develop PLL during their lives but a small percentage do. We currently estimate that between 2% – 20% of carriers will develop the condition, although we believe the true percentage is nearer to 2% than 20%. We do not currently know why some carriers develop the condition whereas the majority do not, and we advise that all carriers have their eyes examined by a veterinary ophthalmologist every 6- 12 months, from the age of 2, throughout their entire lives.
GENETICALLY AFFECTED: these dogs have two copies of the mutation and will almost certainly develop PLL during their lifetime. We advise that all genetically affected dogs have their eyes examined by a veterinary ophthalmologist every 6 months, from the age of 18 months, so the clinical signs of PLL are detected as early as possible.
Frequently Asked Questions. If you have any questions about the PLL test please see if you can find an answer in our list of FAQ’s on our website PLL Genetics
Samples submitted should be cheek swabs ( a non-invasive sampling method). Sampling kits are obtainable from the Animal Health Trust webshop AHT DNA Testing. Further information can be obtained by emailing e-mail
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Beautiful and healthy
Presenting valuable show dogs at national or international Kennel Club meetings or Dog Shows is a full-time job: not only must the four-legged candidates be healthy, in top-shape and perfect form – also cosmetical aspects play an important role to win the Show and be a CHAMPION!
No Dog Show allows unhealthy dogs to be presented in the ring, and every effort must be taken to avoid any possible hazard of spreading infectious diseases between the show dogs. Effective control mechanisms, mostly under the supervision of veterinarians, are established at least in the larger and more important shows, to sort out dogs with diseases, fever or non-tolerable behaviour.
Very often the judges inspect the oral cavity very meticulously, because a healthy, clean and correctly developed dentition and skull is a paramount part of the general appearance and status of any candidate. Skull, alveolar bones and dentition have to match the breed “Standard” of every registered breed. Missing or discoloured teeth, covered with slimy unhygienic masses or unpleasant odour from the mouth would not be a favourable precondition for a successful presentation.
An unhealthy and unattractive dentition is in most cases caused by periodontal disease, which is the most common of all diseases in mammals. More than 80 % of all adult individuals – may that be cats, dogs or humans – suffer from it. The prevention of periodontal disease is a life-long struggle which includes home-care, appropriate nutrition and – if unavoidable – professional veterinary treatment.
As always – prevention is better than cure
Only approximately 10 % of pet dogs receive daily oral hygiene, this means that many dogs suffer from a very poor condition in their mouth, continuous active infection, associated with permanent pain, finally loss of function due to lost teeth and or even organ infection.
As a precondition for successful work with breeding dogs and show dogs, owners of these animals have a by far higher motivation (and education) and take good care of the overall health and dental condition of their precious dogs. Regular tooth brushing, appropriate nutrition, systematical controls and health checks at the veterinarians are of paramount importance. For every showdog, daily tooth-brushing with special toothbrushes and tooth-pastes is highly recommended. Never use human tooth-pastes, they are not only badly accepted by dogs, but also contain ingredients, which can damage the gums. If discolorations are detected, tartar-build up or halitosis is present, the veterinarian should be contacted.
Bad teeth – bad ranking
Not too long before important shows, the dog should be seen by a vet and – if necessary – get a complete dental check and prophylaxis , which means a thorough cleaning and removal of all soft biofilms (Plaque) and hard mineralised debris on the dental surfaces (Tartar, calculus). The teeth should be polished after cleaning to avoid rough dental surfaces after the procedures, which would allow new plaque to recolonise again very quickly, making repeated procedures necessary year after year. Dental plaque is highly pathogenic and the primary cause of both gingivitis and periodontitis or even tooth loss. In addition these aggressive plaque bacteria can enter the blood stream and be spread across the whole body, which may cause septicaemia and organ disease.
The accumulation of dental plaque on the dental surfaces is the primary cause of Gingivitis and Periodontitis, thus the key for success in preventing such periodontal conditions is control of the plaque -> no plaque – no gingivitis/periodontitis!
The benefit of professional periodontal therapy is short-lived unless followed by effective home care. Regular tooth brushing is the best method to achieve that, but both owners and dogs are not always able to handle this, also oral medications can help to reduce plaque.
The role of nutrition
Foods which encourage plaque build-up should be avoided. This includes snacks between meals, high carbohydrate foods such as table scraps, sweets and others unnatural food for dogs. Feeding specially formulated nutrition (specific dental diets, diets with an included dental benefit across the range, dental chewing sticks) is an additional effective way to reduce the amount of plaque in the oral cavity.
Regular professional check-ups and cleanings at your vet, once or twice a year
Daily tooth brushing and chewing toys
Feeding a diet that reduces plaque and tartar build-up
Dr.med.dent. Dr.med.vet. Peter Fahrenkrug
Dentist, Veterinarian and expert in Veterinary Dentistry
Dr. Dr. Fahrenkrug is one of the internationally leading experts in canine dentistry.
This educational article has been brought to you by EUKANUBA
AND AUSTRALIAN STUMPY TAIL CATTLEDOG
As more research is conducted in the field of (color) genetics, more information gathered and more of the
chromosome: The nuclear structure which houses (contains) the genetic information. Chromosomes exist in
pairs and therefore there are always two copies of a given gene.
gene: a unit of inheritance
locus (-ci): the position of a gene on a chromosome. Every gene has a specific locus
genotype: the genetic make-up of an individual
phenotype: that part of the physical appearance of an organism which depends on gene action
homozygous: the condition when both alleles of a gene pair are identical
heterozygous: the condition when both alleles of a gene pair are different
dominant: term describing a gene which can produce a phenotype when present only once; also the
phenotype which results
recessive: term describing a gene which must be present twice to produce a phenotype; also refers to the
phenotype which results
wild: the “normal” phenotype
mutant: the non-normal phenotype; is a relative term (relative to the population from which the organism
color genes: genes that affect the pigment color of hairs
pattern genes: genes that affect the distribution of a particular color.
Different terms are sometimes used for the same genetic colors, depending on breed and sometimes country too.
MELANIN, AGOUTI AND RED:
Melanin is the substance that gives a dog’s hair its color. There are two distinct types of melanin in the dog —
Eumelanin is, in the absence of other modifying genes, black or dark brown.
Phaeomelanin is, in its unmodified form, a yellowish color.
Melanin is produced by cells called melanocytes. These are found in the skin, hair bulbs (from which the hairs grow)
A protein called the Agouti protein has a major effect on the amount of melanin injected into the growing hair. The
The Extension Locus – E
This refers to the extension of eumelanin over the dog’s body. The dominant form, “E”, is normal extension. The
The way to tell the difference between an Agouti red/yellow and an Extension (e/e) red/yellow dog — is the Agouti
DOMINANT BLACK — “K”
The dominant form of black: completely dominates all formation of phaeomelanin pigment. In the past, dominant
Dominant black (K) is epistatic to whatever is found at the Agouti locus (simply means that it causes the Agouti allele
When “K” is in the dominant form, “K/K” or “K/k”, there would be no expression from the A Locus and the color is
When “K” is in the homozygous recessive form “k/k”, the coat color will depend on what is located on the “E” and “A”
Dominant “K” codes for both dominant black and brindle in decreasing order of dominance:
K — dominant black (does not allow the A Locus alleles to be expressed)
A dog that is:
K/K or K/k — dominant black; dominant black carrying recessive black
Brindling is ‘stripes’ of eumelanin-based (can be modified by the genes at the B and D Locus, so the color could be
It is thought that the three loci E, K and A act together as follows:
If the dog is “e/e” at the E locus, and at the K locus, it is “K”, “k^br” or “k”, its coat will be entirely red/yellow
If the dog is E/E or E/e at the E locus, and at the K locus, it is “K/K” or “K/k”, its coat will be entirely dominant black
If the dog is E/E or E/e at the E locus, and at the K locus, it is “k^br/k^br” or “k^br/k” it will be brindled with the color of
If the dog is E/E or E/e at the E locus, and at the K locus, it is “k/k” the distribution of eumelanin and phaeomelanin
The Agouti Locus – A
Simply, this is how the pigment is distributed on the dog’s body and hair shaft.
The Agouti locus controls the formation of the Agouti protein, that in turn is one of the mechanisms that controls
Two promoters are generally associated with the “wild type” version of the agouti gene.
The Cycling Promoter produces a banded hair with a black tip and yellow middle over the entire body. If only the
The Ventral Promoter dictates that there will be only yellow color in the hair on the belly. The animal will have black
If something inactivates the agouti protein, or if both promoters are disrupted, the animal will appear to be solid
If a mutation occurs at one of these Promoters, this can cause the yellow to be expressed over most of the body.
NOTE: In part of a series on Dog Coat Color Genetics by Sheila Schmutz, she states that recent studies
To further complicate things, agouti has 2 separate and somewhat distant promoters. Roughly, one seems to
The agouti gene has been mapped in the dog and DNA studies to determine which patterns are under the control
Decreasing in order of dominance: (**sable may be dominant over wolf in some breeders)
“a^w”, ‘wolf’ color – This is like “a^y” but the tan is replaced with a pale gray/cream color and the hairs usually
have several bands of light and dark color, not just the black tip of sable. Example would be Keeshond, Siberian
“a^y”, ‘sable’ – also known as ‘dominant yellow’ or ‘golden sable’. This results in an essentially red/yellow
phenotype, but the hair tips are black (eumelanin). The extent of the eumelanin tip varies considerably from lighter
“a^s”, ‘saddle’ – Eumelanin is restricted to the back and side regions, somewhat like the black/tan (“a^t”) allele
“a^t”, ‘tan points’ – This is primarily a solid colored dog with tan (phaeomelanin) “points” above the eyes,
muzzle, chest, stomach and lower legs. The hue can range from a pale biscuit to a rich ginger to a golden copper
“a” – last of the Agouti series is recessive black. When a dog is homozygous for recessive black (a/a), there will
be no red/yellow (phaeomelanin) in its coat (unless “e/e” is present, which is epistatic to the Agouti series).
BLACK or BROWN (CHOCOLATE) – B GENE LOCUS: (pigment color)
This gene, when in the homozygous recessive form, has a lightening effect on eumelanin (black-based colors)
B/B or B/b – black
It is believed that the Brown Locus codes for an enzyme, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1), which catalyzes the
When brown (b/b) is expressed, it means that the final step in eumelanin production has not been completed and
When the alleles are in the homozygous or heterozygous dominant form of B/B or B/b, the color and pigment
When the alleles are in the homozygous recessive form (b/b), the color and pigment will be brown. This just means
DILUTION – D GENE LOCUS:
(dilution of pigment)
D/D or D/d – it allows for full color (black or chocolate).
COMBINATIONS OF B AND D IN EUMELANISTIC COATS:
The effects of these 2 genes, when combined, form a range of 4 eumelanistic (‘black-based’) colors:
The color of the pup/dog (Eumelanistic Color):
B/B d/d or B/b d/d will be blue in color
b/b D/D or b/b D/d will be brown/Chocolate (called red in Kelpies)
b/b d/d will be flat or dull diluted brown/chocolate (called fawn in Kelpies).
WHITE SPOTTING – S GENE:
The “S” series alleles appear to be incompletely dominant. In dogs it is thought there are four alleles that deal with
“S” – ‘solid/self color’. Most dogs that are homozygous for “S/S” have no white hair at all, or possible a tiny
amount, like a white tail tip.
“s^i” – ‘irish spotting’. This involves white spotting on most parts of the coat, but not crossing the back beyond
the withers. This color pattern is evident on the Border Collie, Australian Shepherd and other breeds that have the
“s^p” – ‘piebald’. The white is more extensive than irish spotting, and often crosses the back. It is sometimes
confused with the merle pattern. This coloration usually has large colored spots on the body. The white covers
“s^w” – ‘extreme white piebald’. A dog that is homozygous for “s^w” will be almost entirely white, like some Bull
Terriers. The Australian Cattle Dog, the coloration that is called “Blue”, and “Red” by the ACD and ASTCD
TICKED – T GENE:
A dominant mutation that causes the presence of color (flecks of color) in areas that have been made white by the
T/T – ticked (incompletely dominant to non-ticked). This gene is what gives the ACD and ASTCD their
ALBINO – C GENE:
(development of pigment)
At this locus, almost all dogs are “C/C”, or full color.
The lower series alleles, in order of decreasing dominance:
“c^ch” – Chinchilla — It is an incomplete dominant gene. Chinchilla lightens most or all of the red/yellow
(phaeomelanin) with little or no effect on black/brown (eumelanin). It turns black/tan to black/silver. In dogs, this
NOTE: Newer research indicates a chinchilla-like mutation occurs in dogs, although, tyrosinase activity hasn’t
“c^e” – is ‘extreme dilution’. It causes tan to become almost white. It is thought that the white labrador might be
“c^e” with another, lower, “C” series allele. The “c^e” allele may be responsible for producing white hair, while
“c^b” – or blue-eyed albino. This is an entirely white coat with a very small amount of residual pigment in the
eyes, giving pale blue eyes. It is also called platinum or silver. This allelic pair could be responsible for the white
“c^c” – true pink-eyed albino. Has not been seen in dogs.
GRAYING – G GENE:
This is a dominant mutant gene that causes the dog to gray with age. The pigmented hairs are progressively
MERLE – M GENE:
(ACD and ASTCD do not have the merle pattern)
The only way a merle colored pup can be produced is if at least one parent is merle. Some breeders are of the
If someone tells you that they have a litter of merled colored pups and there are no merles for many generations in
The merle gene is an incomplete dominant or a gene with intermediate expression and is another dilution gene.
A “m/m” (homozygous recessive) dog is normal color (no merling). A “M/m” (heterozygous) dog is a merle. A
Cryptic or phantom (as it’s sometimes called) merles are dogs which carry a merle gene but are phenotypically
GENOTYPES AND COLORS:
(“-” is either the dominant or recessive allele)
B/- D/- E/- K/- = black
b/b D/- E/- K/- = brown (chocolate)
B/- d/d E/- K/- = blue
b/b d/d E/- K/- = fawn
at^at B/- D/- E/- k/k = black with tan points
at^at b/b D/- E/- k/k = chocolate with tan points
at^at B/- d/d E/- k/k = blue with dilute tan points
at^at b/b d/d E/- k/k = fawn with dilute tan points
NON-EXTENSION RED (cream):
B/B d/d e/e = dilute red to pale cream with gray nose (dog is genetically a
B/b d/d e/e = dilute red to pale cream with gray nose (dog is genetically a dilute
b/b d/d e/e = dilute red to pale cream with rosey-brown nose (dog is genetically
b/b D/d e/e = dilute red to pale cream with brown nose (dog is genetically
b/b D/D e/e = dilute red to pale cream with brown nose (dog is genetically
B/B D/D e/e = dilute red to pale cream with black nose (dog is genetically black,
B/b D/d e/e = dilute red to pale cream with black nose (dog is genetically black,
Dogs are either black or red —- other alleles act upon each other to create different colors or different shades of
When you are looking at coat color, it is best to look at the entire picture. The entire picture being all the alleles that
Keeping in mind that each puppy receives a copy of each allele from their parents.
The first listed allele is expressed, the second one is hidden or carried. If one parent is brown (b/b) – the “b”
If one parent is B/b – the puppy can receive either “B” or “b”. If the other parent is also B/b – the puppy can receive
Genes that are carried can remain hidden for many generations. Some are under the impression that the hidden
Pigment distribution patterns are controlled by the A and E Loci.
Color that is modified by diluting colors are controlled by the B, C, D, G and M Loci.
The placement of white areas on the coat are controlled by the S and T Loci.
K Locus: controls the expression of the A Locus and brindle
K/K or K/k – does not allow the expression of the A Locus (the alleles are still present, just not allowed to the
k^br – encodes for brindle (in order for brindle to be expressed, the dog MUST be able to express the alleles
k/k – allows expression of the A Locus alleles (all red [sable] ASTCD’s and red [sable] ACD’s)
E extension: controls the extent of black (eumelanin) or yellow (phaeomelanin) across the coat.
E/E or E/e – black coat (keep in mind we are only talking about one allele, when other alleles are added, the
e/e – red or yellow coat (this is a mutation and does not allow black to be expressed. It is epistatic (means
*NOTE: Red (e/e) has been found in the ASTCD and ACD
A Locus: Controls the amount of black and yellow color placement on individual hairs.
a^y – Sable: red shaft with black tips (genotype of the red ASTCD and red ACD)
a^w – Wolf: banded coloration; eumelanin and phaeomelanin compete with each and this causes the banding
a^s – Saddle: no one is sure if this is a separate allele from tan points, or just an exaggerated pattern (can be
a^t – Tan points: eumelanin covering most of the dorsal (back) surface with phaemelanin on the legs, throat,
a^a – recessive black: Only a few breeds are recessive black, usually found in herding breeds (Australian
*** NOTE: there are two promoters that are associated with the A Locus. The cycling promoter produces a banded
B Locus: Controls ONLY eumelanin (black) to either a modification of or full color. Also controls skin pigment (eye
It is believed that the Brown Locus codes for an enzyme, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1), which catalyzes the
When brown (b/b) is expressed, it means that the final step in eumelanin production has not been completed and the
When the alleles are in the homozygous or heterozygous dominant form of B/B or B/b, the color and pigment (nose,
When the alleles are in the homozygous recessive form (b/b), the color and pigment will be brown. This just means
B/B or B/b – is full color, does not change skin pigment or iris color
b/b – the last step in the production of eumelanin is missing, therefore; the color is brown (not red). This allelic
***NOTE: there are actually 3 different alleles that encode for the brown color, since they all do the same thing, only
D/D or D/d – controls full color (black or red) (ASTCD’s and ACD’s are thought to be homozygous for this
D/D or D/d – no dilution, codes for full color
d/d – dilutes any other alleles present (example: dilutes e/e to pale yellow; dilutes b/b to a flat silvery-brown dull
C Locus: Controls full color or dilutes the color
C/C – full color, no dilution (keep in mind the b/b and d/d will dilute the alleles regardless)
c^ch – chinchilla gene: is incompletely dominant and is a flat color. Is said to not greatly affect black and has
c^e – extreme dilution of color. Dilutes red and yellow color to a silvery color approaching white. West Highland
c^b – blue-eye albino. Very rare. May be responsible for the blue-eyed, pink skinned, white Doberman.
c^c – true albino. Pink eyes. Not seen (yet) in dogs.
S Locus: Controls white areas on the body
S/S – Self colored, no white areas are expressed. Sometimes a very minimal amount of white can be found, like
s^i – Irish spotting: white collar, white on legs, white on tail. White does not cross between the withers
s^p – Piebald: white covers 50% of the body and will cross between the withers and tail. There are well defined
s^w – extreme piebald: white body with colored heads and usually a spot near the tail. Some dogs may have
T Locus: Control small spotting on the body
T/T – ticking: can only occur in areas of white color. The T and S Locus compliment each other; in other words – white
T/T or T/t – ticked or roan
G Locus: Graying gene
G/G or G/g – animal grays with age, like a human
M Locus: Controls the dilution of a dogs coat in a patchy pattern (incomplete dominance). Both normal color and
M/M – double merle; occurs when merle is bred to merle
M/m – merle; occurs when merle is bred to non-merle
m/m – non-merle (ALL ASTCD’s and ACD’s are non-merle)
World Dog Show Salzburg|
Judge: Herr Svend Lovenkjaer (DK)
Males – Puppy class
Males- Junior class
Ivanhoe Red Tattoo Outback Maverick V2
Males -Intermediate class
Males – Open class
Dedalo V2, res.CACA
Males – Champion class
Queblue Aussie Icon V2, res.CACA, res.CACIB
Males- Veteran class
Females- Puppy class
Females- Junior class
Females – Intermediate class
Females – Open class
Females – Champion class
Female – Veteran class
SPENDEN FUER REKU/GOOFY
Allen Spendern den allerherzlichsten Dank fuer 475 Euros! Reku ist wohlbehalten in Polen angekommen. Diese kurzfristige Rettungsaktion war nur moeglich, weil zahlreiche Menschen aus Deutschland, Estonia, Polen und Finnland schnell und unbuerokratisch zusammenarbeiteten. Lest dazu REKU’s Geschichte im neuen blog:http://rekugoofy.blogspot.com/
Help to save his life
Hurra, es ist geschafft, REKU kommt zum Zuechter seines Vaters nach Polen. Ich werde die Reisekosten von Estland nach Polen aus Eueren Spenden finanzieren. DANKE an Euch alle, die Ihr Euch so ins Zeug gelegt habt!
KENNEL INGLISILM (not activ anymore)
Heute nacht kam endlich die Erleichterung. GOOFY ist auf halben Weg nach Poznan in Polen und hat seine neue Besitzerin getroffen. Dies ist ihre mail mit Foto:
GOOFY meets his new owner Monika
REKU is finally a good looking, well muscled Australian Cattle Dog and obviously happy with Monika in Poznan.Last news of REKU: He has been BAER tested and is bilateral hearing!
Veliraf Aged to Perfection
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KING’S of the DAWN
Valley of the Wind Ain’t that Love
Byron the Lord vom Teufelsjoch
tel: +43/7612/73 0 82
Corra Blue from Walkers of the Wind
Multi Ch Dinky Di Dakeedoo
Zuechter:Paolo Coletta and Simona Capelli
DROVER’s RUN HORSE RANCH
Ch Armani Kazary Toyo Ken
Puppies have 28 baby teeth. 14 teeth are in the upper jaw and 14 teeth in the lower jaw. They do not have any molars or premolar 1.
When the puppy is about three to four weeks old, the milk teeth start to drop out because the permanent teeth are growing more and more upwards.
Side view of a puppy dentition
When do milk teeth leave?
When do permanent teeth grow?
Dentition in an Adult Dog
|The Australian Cattle Dog has a scissor bite with four different types of teeth; each has its certain duty.Altogether he has 42 teeth.
Incisors- are used for cutting food, chewing,picking up objects and grooming himself or friends; these are the 6 front teeth in the upper and again 6 teeth in the lower jaw.Canines – used for holding and tearing prey/food. There are two upper and two lower canines.
Premolars – used for cutting, holding, carrying and breaking food into small pieces; these teeth are situated between the canines and molars; puppies do not have P1 teeth, only P2, P3, P4; adults have 8 premolars on the top and 8 on the bottom, 4 on each side of the upper and lower jaws