Standard Colors

    Black ticked
    called “BLUE”
    called “RED”

Non-Standard Colors


As more research is conducted in the field of (color) genetics, more information gathered and more of the
‘unknowns’ are ‘known’ — this website will be updated to reflect that information.


chromosome: The nuclear structure which houses (contains) the genetic information. Chromosomes exist in

pairs and therefore there are always two copies of a given gene.

gene: a unit of inheritance

locus (-ci): the position of a gene on a chromosome. Every gene has a specific locus

genotype: the genetic make-up of an individual

phenotype: that part of the physical appearance of an organism which depends on gene action

homozygous: the condition when both alleles of a gene pair are identical

heterozygous: the condition when both alleles of a gene pair are different

dominant: term describing a gene which can produce a phenotype when present only once; also the

phenotype which results

recessive: term describing a gene which must be present twice to produce a phenotype; also refers to the

phenotype which results

wild: the “normal” phenotype

mutant: the non-normal phenotype; is a relative term (relative to the population from which the organism


color genes: genes that affect the pigment color of hairs

pattern genes: genes that affect the distribution of a particular color.

Different terms are sometimes used for the same genetic colors, depending on breed and sometimes country too.
In Dobermans, the dilute brown, is called Isabella. In Border Collies, the dilute brown, is called Lilac. In Kelpies, the
dilute brown, is called Fawn. A dog that is genetically ‘recessive red’ (“e/e”) is known as yellow in some breeds and
red in others. Brown is called chocolate by many and is also referred to as red. In the ACD breed, the ticked-
black/tan is known as blue and the ticked-sable is called red. This is confusing at times.


Melanin is the substance that gives a dog’s hair its color. There are two distinct types of melanin in the dog —
eumelanin and phaeomelanin.

Eumelanin is, in the absence of other modifying genes, black or dark brown.

Phaeomelanin is, in its unmodified form, a yellowish color.

Melanin is produced by cells called melanocytes. These are found in the skin, hair bulbs (from which the hairs grow)
and other places. Melanocytes within the hair follicles cause melanin to be added to the hair as it grows. However,
melanin is not added at a constant ‘rate’. At the very tip of the hair, eumelanin production is usually most intense,
resulting in the darker tip.

A protein called the Agouti protein has a major effect on the amount of melanin injected into the growing hair. The
Agouti protein causes a banding effect on the hair: it causes a fairly sudden change from the production of
eumelanin (black/brown pigment) to phaeomelanin (red/yellow pigment). An example of this coloration would be like
the color of a wild rabbit. The term ‘Agouti’ actually refers to a South American rodent that exemplifies this type of

The Extension Locus – E

This refers to the extension of eumelanin over the dog’s body. The dominant form, “E”, is normal extension. The
recessive form, “e”, is non-extension. When a dog is homozygous for non-extension (e/e), its coat will be entirely
red/yellow (phaeomelanin based). All dogs that have a brown (chocolate) coat will have at least one “E” allele,
because of the production of eumelanin.

The way to tell the difference between an Agouti red/yellow and an Extension (e/e) red/yellow dog — is the Agouti
red/yellow almost always have some black/brown hair in the coat (usually around the ears and tail) and the
Extension (e/e) dog won’t. Another way is the Agouti red/yellow must have at least one (“A^y”) allele and can carry at
most one other agouti allele, the Extension (e/e) can carry any two Agouti alleles (not necessarily “A^y”).


The dominant form of black: completely dominates all formation of phaeomelanin pigment. In the past, dominant
black had been placed at the head of the Agouti series (symbol “A^s”). Now, it has been proven to be part of a
separate series, the “K” series, and not at the Agouti locus at all.

Dominant black (K) is epistatic to whatever is found at the Agouti locus (simply means that it causes the Agouti allele
to act differently from what it normally would), however; “e/e” is dominant to “K” at the E locus.

When “K” is in the dominant form, “K/K” or “K/k”, there would be no expression from the A Locus and the color is
dependant on what is at the E Locus.

When “K” is in the homozygous recessive form “k/k”, the coat color will depend on what is located on the “E” and “A”

Dominant “K” codes for both dominant black and brindle in decreasing order of dominance:

K — dominant black (does not allow the A Locus alleles to be expressed)
k^br — brindle (expressed when A Locus alleles are expressed)
k — normal (allows the A Locus alleles to be expressed)

A dog that is:

K/K or K/k — dominant black; dominant black carrying recessive black
k^br/k^br — brindled
k^br/k — brindled, carrying recessive black
k/k — ‘normal’ (recessive black)

Brindling is ‘stripes’ of eumelanin-based (can be modified by the genes at the B and D Locus, so the color could be
black, blue, chocolate or fawn) hairs in areas that are otherwise phaeomelanin based. In order to produce the
brindle color, at least one parent MUST be a brindle. Brindle is dominant to its absence, so only one copy is
needed. If a person has a brindle colored pup for sale and there are no brindle colors anywhere in the pedigree,
then the sire that is reported on the registration papers — genetically can not be the (true) sire. There is an
exception to this if the dog is “e/e”, he can be a carrier of brindle.

It is thought that the three loci E, K and A act together as follows:

If the dog is “e/e” at the E locus, and at the K locus, it is “K”, “k^br” or “k”, its coat will be entirely red/yellow
(phaeomelanin based);

If the dog is E/E or E/e at the E locus, and at the K locus, it is “K/K” or “K/k”, its coat will be entirely dominant black
(eumelanin based) [**NOTE: the phenotypic color will depend on what is at the B, D, C and M Locus];

If the dog is E/E or E/e at the E locus, and at the K locus, it is “k^br/k^br” or “k^br/k” it will be brindled with the color of
the phaeomelanin part of the brindling affected by the Agouti alleles present;

If the dog is E/E or E/e at the E locus, and at the K locus, it is “k/k” the distribution of eumelanin and phaeomelanin
will be determined solely by the Agouti alleles present.

The Agouti Locus – A

Simply, this is how the pigment is distributed on the dog’s body and hair shaft.

The Agouti locus controls the formation of the Agouti protein, that in turn is one of the mechanisms that controls
the replacement of eumelanin with phaeomelanin in the growing hair. The alleles of the Agouti locus can affect not
just whether or not the eumelanin — phaeomelanin shift occurs, but also where on the dog’s body this happens.

Two promoters are generally associated with the “wild type” version of the agouti gene.

Cycling Promoter
Ventral Promoter

The Cycling Promoter produces a banded hair with a black tip and yellow middle over the entire body. If only the
action of this promoter is disrupted, the hair color on the dog’s back will be black and its belly and inside of the legs
will be yellow. This produces the black and tan color.

The Ventral Promoter dictates that there will be only yellow color in the hair on the belly. The animal will have black
banded hair on the dorsal (back) side and paler yellow hair on the ventral (belly) side. If only the action of this
promoter is disrupted, the hair color on the dog will be banded over its entire body. This is said to be solid agouti

If something inactivates the agouti protein, or if both promoters are disrupted, the animal will appear to be solid

If a mutation occurs at one of these Promoters, this can cause the yellow to be expressed over most of the body.

NOTE: In part of a series on Dog Coat Color Genetics by Sheila Schmutz, she states that recent studies
show that the agouti signal peptide (ASIP) competes with melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH), which produces
eumelanin pigments, to bind on the melanocortin receptor and must sometimes win. Both the E allele and Em allele
are responsive to agouti or melanocortin binding in dogs. However dogs that are ee have a mutation in MC1R and
produce only phaeomelanin. The dog’s agouti genotype doesn’t affect its coat color, which will be some shade of
cream, yellow or red.

To further complicate things, agouti has 2 separate and somewhat distant promoters. Roughly, one seems to
control ventral or belly color and the other dorsal or back color. The simplest way to “see” this is on a black and
tan dog……the back is black from eumelanin pigment being made and the belly is tan or red from phaeomelanin
pigment being made.

The agouti gene has been mapped in the dog and DNA studies to determine which patterns are under the control
of this gene in the dog are in progress. This gene undoubtedly has several alleles, but how many is still an open
question. Some have been identified using DNA studies and tests for agouti phenotypes in some breeds may
become available soon. Although several books attempt to state the dominance hierarchy of the agouti alleles,
since no breed has all the alleles, it is not possible to know this for sure. Most books suggest that it is aw > ay > at
> a. Breeding data and DNA data from our collaborative study with Dr. Greg Barsh’s group at Stanford supports
this. However the data confirm pairwise dominance/recessive relationships in different families…….not the entire
hierarchy in one family.

Decreasing in order of dominance: (**sable may be dominant over wolf in some breeders)

“a^w”, ‘wolf’ color – This is like “a^y” but the tan is replaced with a pale gray/cream color and the hairs usually

have several bands of light and dark color, not just the black tip of sable. Example would be Keeshond, Siberian
and Norwegian Elkhound.

“a^y”, ‘sable’ – also known as ‘dominant yellow’ or ‘golden sable’. This results in an essentially red/yellow

phenotype, but the hair tips are black (eumelanin). The extent of the eumelanin tip varies considerably from lighter
sables (where just the ear tips are black, called “Clear Sables”) to darker sables (where much of the body is dark,
called “Shaded Sables”).

“a^s”, ‘saddle’ – Eumelanin is restricted to the back and side regions, somewhat like the black/tan (“a^t”) allele


“a^t”, ‘tan points’ – This is primarily a solid colored dog with tan (phaeomelanin) “points” above the eyes,

muzzle, chest, stomach and lower legs. The hue can range from a pale biscuit to a rich ginger to a golden copper
in color. Commonly seen in many breeds like hounds, Dobermans, Rottweilers and Kelpies. In breeds that have
the Irish spotting, along with tan points, this is known as “tri” colored (Australian Shepherds and Border Collies).

“a” – last of the Agouti series is recessive black. When a dog is homozygous for recessive black (a/a), there will

be no red/yellow (phaeomelanin) in its coat (unless “e/e” is present, which is epistatic to the Agouti series).
Examples of breeds that show to be recessive black are German Shepherd and Shetland Sheepdog.

BLACK or BROWN (CHOCOLATE) – B GENE LOCUS: (pigment color)

This gene, when in the homozygous recessive form, has a lightening effect on eumelanin (black-based colors)
only. It has no effect on phaeomelanin (red-based colors).

B/B or B/b – black
b/b – brown

It is believed that the Brown Locus codes for an enzyme, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1), which catalyzes the
final step in eumelanin production, changing the final intermediate brown pigment (dihydroxyindole) to black
pigment. SO, ALL dogs start as BROWN and after the final step — this directs the color to be black.

When brown (b/b) is expressed, it means that the final step in eumelanin production has not been completed and
the pigment remains brown. The brown color is not a genetic defect.

When the alleles are in the homozygous or heterozygous dominant form of B/B or B/b, the color and pigment
(nose, eye rims and lips) remains (or directs the color to be) black.

When the alleles are in the homozygous recessive form (b/b), the color and pigment will be brown. This just means
that the final step in eumelanin production of changing brown to black did not occur. Phaemelanin (yellow/red
[e/e]) is not affected. BUT, in the e/e colored dog, if the dog is also b/b; they will be either red or yellow and will
have brown pigment (nose, eye rims and lips). The pigment granules produced by “bb” are smaller, rounder in
shape, and appear lighter than pigment granules in “B” dogs. The iris of the eye is also lightened.


(dilution of pigment)
Not found (has been bred out) in the ACD or ASTCD breed.
This gene has an effect on both eumelanin and phaeomelanin.

D/D or D/d – it allows for full color (black or chocolate).
d/d – homozygous recessive form dilutes black (eumelanin) to blue, red to cream, and chocolate to a dull flat
color (some call it milk chocolate color).


The effects of these 2 genes, when combined, form a range of 4 eumelanistic (‘black-based’) colors:

The color of the pup/dog (Eumelanistic Color):
B/B D/D or B/b D/d will be black in color

B/B d/d or B/b d/d will be blue in color

b/b D/D or b/b D/d will be brown/Chocolate (called red in Kelpies)

b/b d/d will be flat or dull diluted brown/chocolate (called fawn in Kelpies).


The “S” series alleles appear to be incompletely dominant. In dogs it is thought there are four alleles that deal with
white spotting:

“S” – ‘solid/self color’. Most dogs that are homozygous for “S/S” have no white hair at all, or possible a tiny

amount, like a white tail tip.

“s^i” – ‘irish spotting’. This involves white spotting on most parts of the coat, but not crossing the back beyond

the withers. This color pattern is evident on the Border Collie, Australian Shepherd and other breeds that have the
white collar. New research has proven that the white undersides of the Border Collie is dictated by a different

“s^p” – ‘piebald’. The white is more extensive than irish spotting, and often crosses the back. It is sometimes

confused with the merle pattern. This coloration usually has large colored spots on the body. The white covers
approximately 50% of the body.

“s^w” – ‘extreme white piebald’. A dog that is homozygous for “s^w” will be almost entirely white, like some Bull

Terriers. The Australian Cattle Dog, the coloration that is called “Blue”, and “Red” by the ACD and ASTCD
breeders/owners, is really the extreme piebald pattern that is also affected by the ticking gene; giving
the coloration a blue appearance. This allelic pair is also responsible for the “color headed” white dogs. Often
times, along with a colored head, there will also be a colored spot near the tail (called the caudle spot).


A dominant mutation that causes the presence of color (flecks of color) in areas that have been made white by the
effect of alleles in the white spotting (S) series.

T/T – ticked (incompletely dominant to non-ticked). This gene is what gives the ACD and ASTCD their
unique coloration.
t/t – non-ticked


(development of pigment)
The intensity of melanin production in the coat hairs is affected by this gene. The dominant form, “C”, is termed ‘full

At this locus, almost all dogs are “C/C”, or full color.

The lower series alleles, in order of decreasing dominance:

“c^ch” – Chinchilla — It is an incomplete dominant gene. Chinchilla lightens most or all of the red/yellow

(phaeomelanin) with little or no effect on black/brown (eumelanin). It turns black/tan to black/silver. In dogs, this
gene lightens yellow, tan or reddish phaeomelanin to cream. Since there is little effect on the dark eumelanin,
phaeomelanin is effected more strongly than eumelanin and brown. Dilute eumelanin (blue) is effected more
strongly than dark (black) eumelanin. When chinchilla is present, it dilutes brown to milk chocolate, blue to silver
and red to a butter cream color.

NOTE: Newer research indicates a chinchilla-like mutation occurs in dogs, although, tyrosinase activity hasn’t
been shown to be connected. Therefore, some other factor may be involved and the dog chinchilla allele may not
belong in this series. Also, there may be more than one form of the chinchilla gene.

“c^e” – is ‘extreme dilution’. It causes tan to become almost white. It is thought that the white labrador might be

“c^e” with another, lower, “C” series allele. The “c^e” allele may be responsible for producing white hair, while
allowing full expression of dark nose and eye pigment. West Highland Terriers are thought to be e/e c^e/c^e.

“c^b” – or blue-eyed albino. This is an entirely white coat with a very small amount of residual pigment in the

eyes, giving pale blue eyes. It is also called platinum or silver. This allelic pair could be responsible for the white
coated, pink skinned, blue-eyed Doberman’s.

“c^c” – true pink-eyed albino. Has not been seen in dogs.


This is a dominant mutant gene that causes the dog to gray with age. The pigmented hairs are progressively
replaced with unpigmented hairs.


(ACD and ASTCD do not have the merle pattern)

The only way a merle colored pup can be produced is if at least one parent is merle. Some breeders are of the
understanding that the merle gene is a recessive gene and is carried from generation to generation. This is not
correct. The merle gene is not carried, meaning — the dog is either a merle or is not a merle. There are no
exceptions to this law of genetics (for now, at least, until further research is conducted).

If someone tells you that they have a litter of merled colored pups and there are no merles for many generations in
their bloodlines — then these merled pups were not sired by the sire the owner thinks there were. In fact, he
should look for the hole in the fence!

The merle gene is an incomplete dominant or a gene with intermediate expression and is another dilution gene.
Instead of diluting the whole coat it causes a patchy dilution, with a black coat becoming gray patched with black.
Brown becomes dilute brown patched with chocolate, sienna, brick, and various diluted brown colors. While sable
merles can be distinguished from sables, this is sometimes very difficult because the merle coloration looks like –
to just slightly different from — the sable color. The merling is clearly visible at birth, but may fade to little more than
mottling of the ear tips as an adult. Merling on the tan points of a merle black and tan is not immediately obvious,
either, though it does show if the mask factor is present. Eyes of a merle dog are sometimes blue or marbled
(brown and blue segments in the eye).

A “m/m” (homozygous recessive) dog is normal color (no merling). A “M/m” (heterozygous) dog is a merle. A
“M/M” (homozygous dominant) dog, known as a double merle (from a merle to merle mating), has much more
white than is normal for the breed and may have hearing loss, vision problems including small or missing eyes, and
possible infertility. The health effects seem worse if a gene for white markings is also present. In Border Collies and
Australian Shepherds, all of which normally have fairly extensive white markings, the “M/M” white has a strong
probability of being deaf or blind. A “M/M”, double merle, to “mm”, non-merle black in color breeding, is the only
one that will produce 100% merles.

Cryptic or phantom (as it’s sometimes called) merles are dogs which carry a merle gene but are phenotypically
(look like) tri, bi or self colored. These dogs will have some small area of merling somewhere, usually a tiny patch of
merle pattern on their ear, tail, top of head, etc. Keep in mind the tiny patch can be only one hair and it can be
located anywhere on the body. Cryptic merles are very rare. AGAIN, a cryptic or visible merle can only be produced
when one or both parents are merles.


(“-” is either the dominant or recessive allele)

B/- D/- E/- K/- = black

b/b D/- E/- K/- = brown (chocolate)

B/- d/d E/- K/- = blue

b/b d/d E/- K/- = fawn


at^at B/- D/- E/- k/k = black with tan points

at^at b/b D/- E/- k/k = chocolate with tan points

at^at B/- d/d E/- k/k = blue with dilute tan points

at^at b/b d/d E/- k/k = fawn with dilute tan points


B/B d/d e/e = dilute red to pale cream with gray nose (dog is genetically a
dilute black, but will be a cream color)

B/b d/d e/e = dilute red to pale cream with gray nose (dog is genetically a dilute
black, but will be a cream color)

b/b d/d e/e = dilute red to pale cream with rosey-brown nose (dog is genetically
dilute brown, but will be cream color)

b/b D/d e/e = dilute red to pale cream with brown nose (dog is genetically
brown, but will be cream color)

b/b D/D e/e = dilute red to pale cream with brown nose (dog is genetically
brown, but will be cream color)

B/B D/D e/e = dilute red to pale cream with black nose (dog is genetically black,
but will be cream color)

B/b D/d e/e = dilute red to pale cream with black nose (dog is genetically black,
but will be cream color)


Dogs are either black or red —- other alleles act upon each other to create different colors or different shades of
colors. It is theorized that all breeds of dogs have all of the alleles for different colors. Some dogs are been
selectively bred over the many years to be dominant for a certain color or colors. A few examples would be the
Golden Retriever, Irish Setter, Weimaraner, Lab etc…

When you are looking at coat color, it is best to look at the entire picture. The entire picture being all the alleles that
encode for color. We will look at each individual allele and then, later, put them together for the complete coat color.

Keeping in mind that each puppy receives a copy of each allele from their parents.

The first listed allele is expressed, the second one is hidden or carried. If one parent is brown (b/b) – the “b”
allele is the ONLY one that can be copied and inherited by the puppy. So, the puppy will receive a copy of the “b”
allele from that parent. If the other parent is B/B – the only allele that the puppy can receive is “B”. All of the offspring
are B/b, or black and carrying brown.

If one parent is B/b – the puppy can receive either “B” or “b”. If the other parent is also B/b – the puppy can receive
either “B” or “b” (from that parent). The offspring will be: B/B – black; B/b – black and carrying brown; or b/b – brown.

Genes that are carried can remain hidden for many generations. Some are under the impression that the hidden
genes can be bred out in three generations, this is always not the case.

Pigment distribution patterns are controlled by the A and E Loci.

Color that is modified by diluting colors are controlled by the B, C, D, G and M Loci.

The placement of white areas on the coat are controlled by the S and T Loci.

K Locus: controls the expression of the A Locus and brindle

K/K or K/k – does not allow the expression of the A Locus (the alleles are still present, just not allowed to the
expressed) or brindle (all ticked/black ASTCD’s and ACD’s are either K/K or K/k)

k^br – encodes for brindle (in order for brindle to be expressed, the dog MUST be able to express the alleles
from the A Locus) (ASTCD’s nor ACD’s carry the gene for brindle)

k/k – allows expression of the A Locus alleles (all red [sable] ASTCD’s and red [sable] ACD’s)

E extension: controls the extent of black (eumelanin) or yellow (phaeomelanin) across the coat.

E/E or E/e – black coat (keep in mind we are only talking about one allele, when other alleles are added, the
color could change)

e/e – red or yellow coat (this is a mutation and does not allow black to be expressed. It is epistatic (means
causes other alleles to act differently from what they normally would) to all other alleles, but can be modified by
the C Locus to be lighter

*NOTE: Red (e/e) has been found in the ASTCD and ACD

A Locus: Controls the amount of black and yellow color placement on individual hairs.

a^y – Sable: red shaft with black tips (genotype of the red ASTCD and red ACD)

a^w – Wolf: banded coloration; eumelanin and phaeomelanin compete with each and this causes the banding
of color – light, dark, light, dark (not found in the ASTCD nor the ACD)

a^s – Saddle: no one is sure if this is a separate allele from tan points, or just an exaggerated pattern (can be
a carried allele, although not regularly found in the ASTCD, has been seen in the ACD)

a^t – Tan points: eumelanin covering most of the dorsal (back) surface with phaemelanin on the legs, throat,
chest, above the eyes, cheeks and underneath the tail (genotype of the ACD and found in some ASTCD;
can be a carried allele)

a^a – recessive black: Only a few breeds are recessive black, usually found in herding breeds (Australian
Shepherd, German Shepherd) and the Schipperke (studies are now being conducted concerning the
inheritance and location of this gene)

*** NOTE: there are two promoters that are associated with the A Locus. The cycling promoter produces a banded
hair with a black tip and yellow middle over the entire body. The other is the ventral promoter that directs there be
only yellow color in the hair on the belly. These work together and the animal will have black banded hair on the
dorsal surface and paler yellow hair on the ventral (stomach) surface.

B Locus: Controls ONLY eumelanin (black) to either a modification of or full color. Also controls skin pigment (eye
rims, lips and nose leather) and iris color.

It is believed that the Brown Locus codes for an enzyme, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1), which catalyzes the
final step in eumelanin production, changing the final intermediate brown pigment (dihydroxyindole) to black pigment.
SO, ALL dogs start as BROWN and after the final step — this directs the color to be black.

When brown (b/b) is expressed, it means that the final step in eumelanin production has not been completed and the
pigment remains brown. The brown color is not a genetic defect.

When the alleles are in the homozygous or heterozygous dominant form of B/B or B/b, the color and pigment (nose,
eye rims and lips) remains (or directs the color to be) black.

When the alleles are in the homozygous recessive form (b/b), the color and pigment will be brown. This just means
that the final step in eumelanin production of changing brown to black did not occur. Phaemelanin (yellow/red [e/e])
is not affected. BUT, in the e/e colored dog, if the dog is also b/b; they will be either red or yellow and will have brown
pigment (nose, eye rims and lips). The pigment granules produced by “bb” are smaller, rounder in shape, and
appear lighter than pigment granules in “B” dogs. The iris of the eye is also lightened.

B/B or B/b – is full color, does not change skin pigment or iris color

b/b – the last step in the production of eumelanin is missing, therefore; the color is brown (not red). This allelic
pair does change skin pigment and iris color (no matter what other alleles are present). (This coloration has
been found in the ASTCD and the ACD).

***NOTE: there are actually 3 different alleles that encode for the brown color, since they all do the same thing, only
one is mentioned.D Locus: Controls BOTH eumelanin and phaeomelanin to either full color or dilution. Also control
skin pigment (eye rims, lips, and nose leather) and iris color.

D/D or D/d – controls full color (black or red) (ASTCD’s and ACD’s are thought to be homozygous for this
allele [D/D])

D/D or D/d – no dilution, codes for full color

d/d – dilutes any other alleles present (example: dilutes e/e to pale yellow; dilutes b/b to a flat silvery-brown dull
color; dilutes sable to yellow), also dilutes skin pigment of the eye rims, lips and nose leather to gray and
lightens the iris color.

C Locus: Controls full color or dilutes the color

C/C – full color, no dilution (keep in mind the b/b and d/d will dilute the alleles regardless)

c^ch – chinchilla gene: is incompletely dominant and is a flat color. Is said to not greatly affect black and has
little effect on solid black dogs. It affects lighter hues more so than darker, therefore; it lightens yellow, tan and
red hues to cream, brown becomes milk chocolate or a lighter brown and blue becomes silver.

c^e – extreme dilution of color. Dilutes red and yellow color to a silvery color approaching white. West Highland
Terriers are thought to be “e/e c^e/c^e”.

c^b – blue-eye albino. Very rare. May be responsible for the blue-eyed, pink skinned, white Doberman.

c^c – true albino. Pink eyes. Not seen (yet) in dogs.

S Locus: Controls white areas on the body

S/S – Self colored, no white areas are expressed. Sometimes a very minimal amount of white can be found, like
a white tip on the tail, white toes, white star on chest – these white areas are also thought to be caused by
another allele.

s^i – Irish spotting: white collar, white on legs, white on tail. White does not cross between the withers
(shoulders) and tail.

s^p – Piebald: white covers 50% of the body and will cross between the withers and tail. There are well defined
colored spots on the body (like some Jack Russell’s). (ASTCD’s and ACD’s that have body spots are

s^w – extreme piebald: white body with colored heads and usually a spot near the tail. Some dogs may have
color only around the eyes or ears (or both). Breeding extreme white dogs may result in all white offspring. (All
ASTCD’s and ACD’s are the extreme piebald coloration, along with being ticked [the ticking gene]).

T Locus: Control small spotting on the body

T/T – ticking: can only occur in areas of white color. The T and S Locus compliment each other; in other words – white
areas must be present in order for the ticking to be expressed. The color of the tick (small spotting) is the color that
the coat would have been, if the white spotting gene was not present. (All ASTCD’s and ACD’s have this gene).

T/T or T/t – ticked or roan
t/t – non-ticked

G Locus: Graying gene

G/G or G/g – animal grays with age, like a human
g/g – does not gray

M Locus: Controls the dilution of a dogs coat in a patchy pattern (incomplete dominance). Both normal color and
diluted colors occur, because the M alleles are incomplete dominant.

M/M – double merle; occurs when merle is bred to merle

M/m – merle; occurs when merle is bred to non-merle

m/m – non-merle (ALL ASTCD’s and ACD’s are non-merle)

Posted in Breeding | Leave a comment

One year old CeCe herding

See Gwen’s young ACD herding big cattle. She has matured into a wonderful working cattle dog, terrific positive and happy temperament and eager to learn and please

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Results of World Winner 2012

World Dog Show Salzburg

Judge: Herr Svend Lovenkjaer (DK)

Males – Puppy class
Windwarrior´s Storm Warning VV1
Lestat vom Teufelsjoch VV2

Males- Junior class
Sawdust´s In All It´s Glory V1, JUNIOR WORLD WINNER, BOB
(dam: Kalegoorlie Blue Cidabro) :-)))

Ivanhoe Red Tattoo Outback Maverick V2
Persian Pearl Dingo V3
Avery´s Va Bene von der Sturmhöhe V4
Spader´s Checker V
Banana Bender Life Is Like A Chocolates Box V
Cattlepark´s Simply Smokin SG
In The Mood Red Tattoo Outback Maverick SG
Cattle Catchers Born To Heel SG
Wild Desert Dingo´s Living Legend SG
Banana Bender Conte Di Cavour SG
Kyron vom Teufelsjoch SG
Jethro Tull vom Teufelsjoch SG
Nohel of Drover´s Run Horser Ranch SG

Males -Intermediate class
Alligator Between The Rivers V1, CACA
Banana Bender Se Quel Guerriero Io Fossi G

Males – Open class
Bentley´s Blue Crackerjack V1, CACA
(dam: Vet Ch. Clever Girl Cidabro, our great friend lives with us)

Dedalo V2, res.CACA
Bavarian Heartbreakers Anican V3
Banana Bender The Governor V4
Big Tasty of the Seven Hills Country V
Makapuupoint V
Estorillo vom Teufelsjoch G
Banana Bender Mercury Blues G
Jumpin Joker´s Guillian G
Muffin Man Del Whimper Delle G.J. nicht anwesend

Males – Champion class
Heelersridge Emublu King V1, CACA, CACIB – WORLD WINNER
(King is 3rd time WORL WINNER, sire of our Q and U-litters Cidabro)

Queblue Aussie Icon V2, res.CACA, res.CACIB
Flintstone Turrella Red Tattoo Outback Maverick V3
Hyatho des Poenjaap V4
Banana Bender Doctor Who V
Imboss of Drover´s Run Horse Ranch V
Espion Du Val de Roquepertuse SG
Va Bene Neverland King SG
Agent I-Point Wild Mosquitos SG
Heelersridge Working Class Man SG
Link of the Seven Hills Country SG

Males- Veteran class
Cattlepark´s Mouldtail V1, WORLD VETERAN WINNER
Wallaby Ned Kelly V2
Oakhill Valley Chaos SG3
Tallawong Snow Drift SG4

Females- Puppy class
Ocean Blue of Drover´s Run Horse Ranch VV1

Females- Junior class
A Ballad Of Lucy Jordan von der Sturmhöhe V1, JUNIOR WORLD WINNER
Goldikova Du Mont De La Nonnenhardt V2
Gena Mini Aussie V3
Banana Bender Sventola Il Tricolore V4
Impressive Blue Tattoo Outback Maverick V
Zamok Svyztogo Angela Yulya Luna V
Narwee Cinderella´s Ranch V
Nevada Of Drover´s Run Horse Ranch V
Drywoods Liberty Of Horseman Buddies SG
Cattlepark´s Smoky Blue Pearl SG
Ice N Snow Blue Tattoo Outback Maverick SG
Kaja vom Teufelsjoch SG
Pleistozaen Cariama Cristata SG
Banana Bender From Greenbow Alabama —

Females – Intermediate class
Adina Between The Rivers V1, CACA
Indygo Rainbow Of Rum Jungle SG2
GC Freemantle Doctor Electric Blue Jeans G

Females – Open class
Karkoolka Cinderella´s Ranch V1, CACA, CACIB, WORLD WINNER, BOS
Kurpas Rejoice V2, res.CACA, res.CACIB
Jai des Poenjaap V3
Va Bene No Angel V4
Banana Bender Senorita Rosarita SG
Landmaster So Glad Youre Mine SG

Females – Champion class
Buzzard Francesca Romana V1, CACA
Clearidge Red Min Fire V2, res.CACA
Deli Banana Bender V3
McCoy´s Endless Sky Of Blossom V4
MISS AUSSIE CIDABRO V …….. our Lupina is real Winner for me :-))))
Turrella Red Mae West V
Danbar´s River of Dreams V
Electra vom Teufelsjoch V
Bruni Kazari Toyo-Ken —-

Female – Veteran class
Gina SG

Posted in Shows | 1 Comment

Results at Crufts 2012

Posted in goofy | 2 Comments

Aging in Dogs – A Complete Overview

Dr Wim Van Kerkhoven – copyright

Factors influencing Life Expectancy
Apart from breed, several factors influence life expectancy:

Diet – The oldest dog on record was Bluey, an Australian Cattle Dog, who died at 29 in 1939. In the 2000s, at least two dogs were still living at 27 years old, but one was fed a purely vegetarian diet (border collie, died at 27) and one fed primarily on kangaroo and emu meat (bull terrier cross, died at 27).
Spaying and neutering – Neutering reduces or eliminates the risk of some causes of early death, for example pyometra in females, and testicular cancer in males, as well as indirect causes of early death such as accident and euthanasia (intact dogs roam and tend to be more aggressive), but there might increase the risk of death from other conditions (neutering in cited paper only showed an increased the risk for prostate cancer but has not been repeated in subsequent papers] in males, and neutered males might have a higher rate for urinary tract cancers such as transitional cell carcinoma and prostatic adenocarcinoma.

What things should you expect as your dog ages?

Slowing down


Arthritis, particularly large breeds. Arthritis can occur in any joint, most commonly the legs, neck and back (spine)
Graying around the face, muzzle starting at middle age (5-6 years)
Reduced hearing (deafness).
Cloudy or “bluish” eyes – The medical term for this is lenticular sclerosis. Vision does not appear to be affected. This is NOT the same as cataracts. Cataracts are white and opaque and vision can be affected.
Muscle atrophy – Mild loss of muscle mass, especially the hind legs. Some muscle atrophy, notably on the head and the belly muscles, can signify diseases such as masticatory myositis and Cushing’s disease
Decreased activity, more sleeping, and reduced energy (in part due to reduced lung function)
Weight gain (calorie needs can be 30–40% lower in older dogs)
Weakening of immune system leading to infections
Skin changes (thickening or darkening of skin, dryness leading to reduced elasticity, loss or whitening of hair)
Change in feet and nails (thicker and more brittle nails makes trimming harder)
Loss of teeth
Gastrointestinal upset (stomach lining, diseases of the pancreas, constipation)
Urinary issues (incontinence in both genders, and prostatitis/straining to urinate in males)
Mammary cysts and tumors in females
Heart murmurs

Senility ? Don’t forget, senior dogs get Alzheimers too !
Some dog owners may report that their dog wake up in the middle of the night and start howling. Others may report their very well house-trained dog gets up and has accidents around the house or wakes up to drink and then shortly after urinates on the carpet. Just as it may happen in humans, dogs ted to approach their golden years by losing parts of their cognitive function. Some may lose some, some may lose more. Many refer to these cases affectionately as ‘doggy Alzheimer’s’ while medically, this condition is abbreviated as CDS standing for Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome.
Key CDS symptoms

When you can’t teach new tricks anymore to an old dog… Senior dogs may forget some simple commands they have known all their lives.
The blank stare … Dogs affected by CDS may stare for no apparent reason a wall or any other object, some may even chase imaginary objects or bark while nothing is there.
The big maze … Some dogs will get up in the middle of the night and wander around bumping into furniture as they look for their way out. Some may get easily distressed and panic as they try to find the way back to bed. Some dogs will howl or get stuck in a corner without finding their way out.
Night owls … sometimes the dog may have difficulty recognizing the difference between night and day and forget all about the routines. These are the dogs that will wake up at night and start having accidents around the house or start drinking or eating in the middle of the night. Afterward, they will sleep during the day and have no more accidents.
Inside and outside debate …some dogs may even forget why they are sent outside.
Who are you ? … Some dogs may even forget who their owner is and may growl or act unusually timid. At other times they may have moments of seeming to remember.

What can you do?

Take you dog out more often
Pet your dog and show affection more often
Do not move furniture around to prevent confusion
Keep up with a daily routine and stick with it
Have your dog wear doggie diapers during the night
Place baby gates to seclude dangerous areas such as stairs
Supervise your pet when outdoors

Elderly Dog Feeding Considerations
Older dogs are undergoing many different physiological changes. To keep up with these changes, it is recommended that a diet that is suited for older dogs be fed. Remember to keep up with the exercise and keep the weight under control.

Foods to Avoid
The most common geriatric canine complaint is arthritis; red meat and dairy products can aggravate the painful inflammation associated with this disorder, so eliminate these foods from your dog’s diet if he suffers from arthritis.
Many older dogs will need a well-balanced diet that is lower in calories, but still has adequate protein and fat, and is higher in fiber. For some older dogs, we can continue to feed their regular food, but in a smaller quantity. Specially formulated senior diets are lower in calories and help to create a feeling of fullness. Lower fat usually translates to lower calories; so many senior diets have lower fat levels than adult maintenance or growth diets. Older dogs are more prone to develop constipation, so senior diets are often higher in fiber at around 3 to 5%. If your dog has significantly decreased kidney function, then a diet that is lower in phosphorus will lower the workload for the kidneys.

Supplements for older dogs – useful?
Aging dogs have special nutritional needs, and some of those can be supplied in the form of supplements. Feeding a daily supplement containing glucosamine and chondroitin, may help support joints. If your dog is not eating a complete balanced diet, then a vitamin/mineral supplement is recommended to prevent any deficiencies. Some owners like to feed extra antioxidants. As mentioned earlier, a prebiotic product may help to reduce the incidence of constipation.
In general, supplements are more than useful for older dogs. Older dogs have a decreased absorption of nutrients in the intestines and need to be supplemented but make sure that those nutrients can be well absorbed because the intestinal cells don’t absorb at the same level as in a 3 year old dog. Viyo Elite is a low calorie product and is complete in formulation. Viyo Elite guarantees due to his liquid formulation a good and fast absorption of all nutrients. It is a low calorie product containing all essential vitamins, minerals, amino acids and fatty acids, prebiotics as MOS,FOS and inulin and supports the joint health through glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate.

Dr Wim Van Kerkhoven – copyright

Posted in Health | 2 Comments

Breeder/Zuechter CAN


Agassiz Reg’d Kennels

Ch. (Alt) Agassiz’s Dingo Ringo, CD, HIC, CGN, WD, RN-CL

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Official Video of Australian Cattle Dogs at Westminster Show, 2012

Australian Cattle Dogs at Westminster Show 2012

Posted in Videos | Leave a comment

Reku/GOOFY’s Weg ins neue Leben


Datum Name Betrag
10.01.2012 Doris Duewel 100 €
11.01.2012 Monika Ziemann 30 €
12.01.2012 Heike Lindner 20 €
17.01.2012 Alexander + Karin Saenger 50€
19.01.2012 Alexandra Busch 10€
19.01.2012 Michael Gottschalk 20€
19.01.2012 Petra & Michael Gerhards 30€
20.01.2012 Andreas Espenner 50€
23.01.2012 Nicole Lichtsteiner 50€
23.01.2012 Marion Sent 10€
23.01.2012 Ingo Laudenbach 10€
24.01.2012 Holger Nill 20€
25.01.2012 Isabel Reis 25€
25.01.2012 anonym 50€

Allen Spendern den allerherzlichsten Dank fuer 475 Euros! Reku ist wohlbehalten in Polen angekommen. Diese kurzfristige Rettungsaktion war nur moeglich, weil zahlreiche Menschen aus Deutschland, Estonia, Polen und Finnland schnell und unbuerokratisch zusammenarbeiteten. Lest dazu REKU’s Geschichte im neuen blog:

    Help to save his life

Hurra, es ist geschafft, REKU kommt zum Zuechter seines Vaters nach Polen. Ich werde die Reisekosten von Estland nach Polen aus Eueren Spenden finanzieren. DANKE an Euch alle, die Ihr Euch so ins Zeug gelegt habt!

KENNEL INGLISILM (not activ anymore)

Sex :Male
Health: PRA A or B
Color :Red speckled
Call Name:REKU
Description:Spoiled by owner in bad way (by stick). Think that he has to protect his owner in agressive way. Available only till the end of this week.
If you want more details, please email or call Mari Joamets My contact: +375065299, or skype mari.joamets
I don’t have this dog, but I am in contact with the owner.

Komi, 11-1-2012So fing alles an:”Looking for new home! Australian Cattledog, male, 4,5 y, red / uut kodu otsib 4,5 aastane punane isane austraalia karjakoer. Uut kodu otsib perenaise poolt untsu keeratu 4,5 aastane isane punane austraallane Reku. Link EKLi registrisse (, INGLISILM GOOFY KULDREBANE. Taust. Mammi müüs maja maha lepinguga, et saab surmani sees elada. Maj…”Pedigree:INGLISILM GOOFY KULDREBANE ( DIESEL DIAMANTINA – WORRIGAL TWIST’N SHOUT


Sex :Male

Health: PRA A or B

Color :Red speckled

Call Name:REKU

Description:Spoiled by owner in bad way (by stick). Think that he has to protect his owner in agressive way. Available only till the end of this week.

call Mari Joamets My contact: +375065299, or skype mari.joamets

I don’t have this dog, but I am in contact with the owner.

Was dann passierte war eine Lawine der Empoerung und des Mitleid.

Deutsche Tierfreunde wollten diesen gesunden, 4 jaehrigen Australian Cattle Dog mit FCI Papieren vor dem Tod durch seinen Besitzer retten.Das musste im Eiltempo passieren, denn der Besitzer wollte ihm nur eine Gnadenfrist bis Ende der Woche geben. Wie sollte REKU von Tallin nach Deutschland kommen? Wieviel kostet ein ausgewachsener Ruede per Flug? Geschaetzte 600€? Es musste gesammelt werden. Wenn jeder etwas dazu gibt, schaffen wir es. Bis dato konnte ich nicht einmal die verreiste Carmen Baumgartner von “ACD in Not” fragen, ob sie eine Pflegestelle fuer ihn hat. Egal, Hauptsache erst einmal weg von diesem Besitzer und nach Deutschland, wo man ihn nicht einschlaefern wuerde. Ich spreche Carmen unser Problem aufs Band, Keine Antwort. Was ich nicht wusste, der Akku ihres Telefons war leer. Dann plötzlich die erloesende Nachricht, er wird ein neues Zuhause in Poznan bei Monika Milewska finden. Sie hat eine kleine, bekannte Zucht von Australian Cattle Dogs mit dem Namen “Diamantina Force (FCI)”.

Was immer wir im deutschen Fernsehen ueber polnische Massenproduktion bedauernswerter Welpen mit gefaelschten Impfpaessen sehen, es gibt auch polnische Zuechter, die nicht nur im traditionsreichen Związek Kynologiczny w Polsce mit FCI Papieren zuechten, sondern ihre Hunde und Wuerfe mit Liebe und Fuersorge betreuen. Ich habe selbst einen Cardigan Corgi aus polnischer Zucht, der nicht nur hervorragend gezuechtet wurde, sondern keine bessere Betreuung in seinen ersten Lebensmonaten haben konnte als durch seine polnische Zuechterin. Sie hat mir einen lieben, vertrauensvollen Welpen gegeben.

Komi, 12-1-2012
Mari Jouamets schreibt:
Hi Doris!I’m really greatful that I found You and Monika. When I put this announcement, I was sure that I can’t help him within  such a short time, but I decided to try. What happened is a real miracle to me. We now decided with Monika to transport him by car. Monika hasn’t decided yet, if she will  come to Estonia, will I drive to her to Poznan or  will we meet in the middle, in Kaunas (Kowno). Now when Reku has a new home I’ve got one more week for him that Monika could arrange all her things what she needs to take good care for Reku at start. When he will come  to his new home, it’s the most important time for him in many ways. When Reku will start to leave Estonia, I promise, I will take pictures and will write all about it for you and all the German supporters. You know, Reku’s life is the second dog’s life which  I’ve really saved. First time it was a  brutal  case of abuse. It was the very first time that such a case of abuse was published in Estonia. After this case Estonian people  started to realize that dogs are living creatures and they deserve attention like  humans. They started to realize, that  it’s not OK to keep them on short  chain,  it’s not OK to beat them and  it’s not OK to feed them with water and bred and so on. The involved dog whom  I’m talking about is my labrador retriever Lill. She had a lot of not-treated fractures (both first legs, breastbone and pelvis), she was  asozial (she was over one year old and she  didn’t even  knew her name), she didn’t communicate with people at all, she was afraid of everything. Her leg looked like this: (this is her). She lived in a dark garage and were fed by water and bones. Now she is a very friendly and happy dog with quite a good health. When  her breeder found her in such a bad condition, she gave this dog to me for 2 weeks to see how she behaves. After 2 weeks she decided to put her asleep because of her health problems and asozial behavior. I asked this dog for  myself. The breeder thought that she will not live longer as about 4-5 years, but in april she will be 7 :) Yes, she has some problems with her health, but she is fine in general. Today she looks like: or As you can see, after hard medical surgery ( her leg is fine. Thank You a lot and I keep You informed about everything what is going on about Reku/Goofy! Best, Mari

Monika wrote:

Good afternoon Doris, this site is great! Thanks! Of course, will be new photos on FB, I have over 300 people with ACDs in my friends on FB, so if I will put new photos, then a lot people will see it and you of course can copy this on Reku/Goofy page. I also want to change his name from Reku on Goofy and I hope he very fast will forget about his earlier life. He will have very good friends – my girls and me and dogs of my friends and my friends. I go with my dogs to place for dogs and there they can play with other dogs :-)About this money: maybe bettter would be to sent money to Mari? She also did very good job and she also will help in trasport of Goofy :-) We plan to meet in around half road, probably it will be next weekend (21-22.01.), for Mari and her husband weekend is also better than middle of week.

I also plan to take with us my red female, because I have her short time yet and better will be if she will go with me there. My Bluebird will be with Jarek’s wife on this travel’s time and my afghan Raszida at other my friends and she will be there few weeks, because I will need more time for Goofy in these first days/weeks. Raszida very likes these my friends, because they also have afghan, so will not be problem :-)And Doris: I don’t do it for popularity of my kennel, I do it for Goofy, he is most important in this all :-)All the best for you,

Meri wrote from Tallin:
Today I went to see Goofy. I would say that he is more wild than aggressive. Barked a few times from a distance, do not try to attack. He is also a bit fat, should lose a few pounds I think :)
Today, it also appears that the owner has lost his pedigree. This means that the exportpedigree formalization takes a little more time than we expected, as the first step is to restore Estonia’s pedigrees. Missing pedigree does not distruct his transporting.
I also enclose a couple of today’s image

Heute nacht kam endlich die Erleichterung. GOOFY ist auf halben Weg nach Poznan in Polen und hat seine neue Besitzerin getroffen. Dies ist ihre mail mit Foto:

GOOFY  meets  his new owner  Monika
Monika Diamantina Force 22 January 00:11

Good evening Dear Doris,
we already have Reku/Goofy and I want to tell you, that he is VERY FRIENDLY! :-)
He is very, very fat, but he will get good diet and he will have a lot walks, so I think he will look very good soon :)
In moment I will put few photos and later also Mari and Jarek will put, because they have better cameras than me and there was already dark, so my photos are not good.
Now we are again at Jarek’s friends on the night, Goofy is also very nice and polite :)
Thanks for all and good night,

GOOFYs lange Reise beginnt am 21.Januar in der Hauptstadt Estlands Tallin, fuehrt durch Lettland, dann durch Litauen und fast ganz durch Polen bis nach Poznan, dem ehemaligen Posen nahe der deutschen Grenze.Das sind kalkulierte 1291 km mit einer hochgerechneten Reisezeit von 17 1/2 Stunde ohne Pausen fuer GOOFY und seine jeweiligen Begleiter.Monika kommt aus Polen die halbe Strecke Mari entgegen. Beide nehmen eine anstrengende Fahrt auf sich, um GOOFY ein besseres zukuenftiges Leben bieten zu koennen.
Leider sind zu wenig Spenden eingegangen, um Sprit, Verpflegung und Uebernachtung bezahlen zu koennen.Siehe Spendenliste oben. Ich werde trotzdem 200 Euros ueberweisen als Hilfe fuer Monika und ihren Fahrer aus Polen und Mari aus Estland.
Ende gut, alles gut. Nach fast 1300 km Fahrt, ab Freiag, 23. Januar nachts von Tallin in Estland ueber einen naechtlich Stop in Litauen bis nach Poznan in Polen, erreichte REKU am Montag, dem 26.01. mit Monika seine neue Heimat. Die Spendenaktion erbrachte dann doch noch 470€, womit die Fartkosten gedeckt werden konnten. Niemand freut sich darueber mehr als ich. Ganz herzlichen Dank allen Spendern fuer ihr Mitgefuehl und ihre materielle Hilfe!
Hier zwei Fotos von REKU in seiner neuen Heimat. Er scheint ein polyglottes Naturtalent zu sein, denn er verstand auf Anhieb polnisch….

REKU settling down after all

REKU with his grandma in Poland

REKU is finally a good looking, well muscled Australian Cattle Dog and obviously happy with Monika in Poznan.Last news of REKU: He has been BAER tested and is bilateral hearing!  

  • breeder:Lorraine Norris & Charlie Gerster
  • 2728 Elm Tree Road, Lindsay, ON Canada K9V 4R1 (705) 374-3989
  • e-mail
  • Dalaussie Kennels

    BISS AM/CAN Champion

  • Breeder:LESLIE OLSON
  • Phone Number: 403 223 1271
  • e-mail

  • Zuechter: Joyce & Rebecca Redden
  • email


    Veliraf Aged to Perfection

  • Zuechter:Nicole Heath
  • email
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    Breeder/Zuechter AUT




  • Zuechter: Andy & Karin Kirchner
  • homepage
  • email
  • KING’S of the DAWN

    Valley of the Wind Ain’t that Love

  • Zuechter: Andreas Kettl
  • Kings of the Dawn
  • Tel.: 0043-676 843 072 319

    Byron the Lord vom Teufelsjoch

  • Zuechter: Ilse Sadleder
  • v. Teufelsjoch
  • email or Mobil: +43/676/39 83 290
    tel: +43/7612/73 0 82

    Corra Blue from Walkers of the Wind

  • Zuechter: Viktoria Kastner
  • homepage:Pleistozaen
  • email
  • Posted in Breeding | Leave a comment

    Breeder/Zuechter I


    Multi Ch Dinky Di Dakeedoo
    Zuechter:Paolo Coletta and Simona Capelli
  • homepage
  • email
  • tel.: Casa +39 33 16 50 10 24

    Ch Armani Kazary Toyo Ken
    breeder:Jerry Lanzoni
  • homepage
  • email
  • Tel. 347-3449812
  • Posted in Breeding | Leave a comment

    Dentition in Puppies & Adults

    Puppies have 28 baby teeth. 14 teeth are in the upper jaw and 14 teeth in the lower jaw. They do not have any molars or premolar 1.
    When the puppy is about three to four weeks old, the milk teeth start to drop out because the permanent teeth are growing more and more upwards.

    Side view of a puppy dentition

    When do milk teeth leave?

    Incisors 4-6 weeks
    Canine 5-6 weeks
    Premolars 6 weeks

    When do permanent teeth grow?

    Incisors 3-5 months
    Canine 4-6 months
    Premolars 4-5 months
    Molars 5-7 months

    Dentition in an Adult Dog

    The Australian Cattle Dog has a scissor bite with four different types of teeth; each has its certain duty.Altogether he has 42 teeth.

    Incisors- are used for cutting food, chewing,picking up objects and grooming himself or friends; these are the 6 front teeth in the upper and again 6 teeth in the lower jaw.Canines – used for holding and tearing prey/food. There are two upper and two lower canines.

    Premolars – used for cutting, holding, carrying and breaking food into small pieces; these teeth are situated between the canines and molars; puppies do not have P1 teeth, only P2, P3, P4; adults have 8 premolars on the top and 8 on the bottom, 4 on each side of the upper and lower jaws

    - used for grinding food into small pieces The molars are situated behind the premolars and are the last teeth in the back of the jaw; puppies do not have molars; Adults have four molars in the upper jaw, two on each side and 6 molars in the lower jaw, three on each side.

    Posted in Canine dentition | Leave a comment

    ANATOMY of the Australian Cattle Dog

    Overview of the anatomy and conformation of the Australia Cattle Dog

    Posted in Anatomy | Leave a comment

    Results when Using the prcd-PRA Test

    Expected results for breeding strategies using the OptiGen prcd test
    Parent 1
    Parent 2 Status
    Normal/Clear Carrier Affected
    Normal/Clear All = Normal/Clear 1/2 = Normal/Clear
    1/2 = Carrier
    All = Carrier
    Carrier 1/2 = Normal/Clear
    1/2 = Carrier
    1/4 = Normal/Clear
    1/2 = Carrier
    1/4 = Affected
    1/2 = Carrier
    1/2 = Affected
    Affected All = Carrier 1/2 = Carrier
    1/2 = Affected
    All = Affected
    Posted in Health | Leave a comment

    The Tragical Loss of Bloodlines and Mentoring

    The Tragic Loss of Bloodlines
    and Mentoring in America
    by Carol D. Hawke, e-mail

    These tremulous topics are subjects I have been carefully contemplating for better than a decade after we first began to hear rumors from British friends about the unsettling disappearance of renowned bloodlines and having personally witnessed the decline of individual mentoring here in America. The disconcerted whispers have evolved into various public outcries as numbers of longtime breeders, handlers and judges worldwide have united in mutual concern.
    In all recorded decades past in America and over much of the centuries written of dog breeding, serious dog breeders have always worked diligently to produce “bloodlines.” Americans are still inclined to fondly refer in slang to their breeding programs as their ” lines.” These were typically direct canine lineages that traced back to one or more foundation stock of note. These “lines” remained consecutive as the decades pushed steadily onward, with breeders adding and removing characteristics in the same fashion as an artist adds and removes detail from a masterpiece in progress. Sometimes that forward momentum came at a crawl and other times in leaps and bounds, yet serious fanciers rarely abandoned their “lines.” In actual practice, bloodlines were only rejected when a deadly defect or perilous plague allowed no other option. For a few breeders, such disaster spelled the end of a life’s work. The venture was over insofar as they were concerned. Others found opportunities to begin again with some related stock shared by a former pupil or two. The point remains; dedicated breeders remained intensely loyal to their original programs.
    Each major bloodline presented a differing view of the standard while all of them offered some presentable version. Every kennel or “line” did its’ own share of winning and staked-out a firm place in the annals of canine history. Large or small, each one made a contribution, of that there can never be any question or doubt. One could count on those “lines” inasmuch as they were identifiable types, to produce dogs that would in turn, produce more dogs that bore the distinct resemblance of “the line.” There was a notable, positive measure of consistency both phenotypically and genetically. A common practice was for the next generation of dog breeders (the mentored) to take up foundation stock from two popular “lines” and create, much to their own and everyone else’s great delight, a “new line.” Wisely mentored, talented individuals found ways to bring out the very best of differing “lines.” Such efforts frequently made fast friends of longtime show opponents. After all, both lines contributed to a reawakened success in much the same fashion proud grandparents are spontaneously united. In a few cases where the “lines” clashed and the new efforts failed, each side could blame the other for the unhappy results. Regardless, a mutually satisfying proposition resulted however the tossed genetic coin may have landed. If one cross failed, another was attempted until success was eventually obtained. The entire process was accomplished under the watchful eyes of scrupulous mentors. A successful breeding program of one’s own marked the rite of passage for the past two centuries of dog breeding in America until the most recent decades. Tendencies and trends in dog breeding have suddenly taken a series of sharp turns. Times have changed, yes, but times always do change while dog breeding as a hobby is manifesting an entirely new face.
    What shall we entitle this fallacious facade? Nobody I have the pleasure of knowing at length in dogs is able to fully grasp this anomaly and accurately identify it. Is this a transitional phase in dog breeding or is it the wave of the future rendering many of us the tail end of an ancient entity that will cease before our very eyes? The visible characteristics of this incomprehensibly unorthodox approach to dog breeding reveals first and foremost the loss of distinct “lines” as we knew them. Subsequently and secondarily we note the rapid decline of clearly identifiable variations within breeds owing to an apparent lack of resolve to preserve known lines or even develop new ones for that matter. Evidently, many of today’s trendy fanciers may view dog breeding as a sort of genetic ‘smorgasbord’ wherein it really does not matter what one starts with or ends up with as long as it produces a winner instantly. What we are witnessing is the rejection of the proven practice of long term breeding from a particular line or lines in order to manifest some version of the breed standard along with the essential fine-tuning that it has always necessitated. I have personally noted (along with many who have arisen from the traditional role of dog breeding) that no apparent mental concept of the breed standard seems to be required by this new generation of dog breeders. In its’ place resides the quaint desire to refrain from producing a show specimen with any disqualifying faults or other serious refractions that might prevent winning. If every critter produced by such breeders and their typical, entangling alliances is entirely different in type, temperament and structure from the next, this is apparently incidental if not amusingly quirky – rather than appropriately humiliating. This recent phenomena poses a genuine dilemma for the mentors currently addressing dog breeders and doubtless, to our reigning judges.

    Much of the murmuring amongst longtime breeders and judges reflects the rarity of locating two dogs with remotely equivalent virtues in any given breed, much less in any class at a dog show today. There appears neither rhyme nor reason to the breeding techniques being implemented. One might surmise from the evidence presented that today’s dog breeder expects to win at each outing with every show prospect entered. Infinitely worse, far too many are wont to sell as show prospects all remotely saleable individuals from each litter produced without regard to consistency of quality or future prepotency. Perplexingly overlooked is the simple fact that a great deal of time has always been expended at home by serious, ethical dog breeders planning, growing out and placing the majority of litters who are not and never will be, show or breeding quality dogs. That’s just the way dog breeding pans out. Only the best were brought forth for public exhibition. Every pup a conscientious individual produces doesn’t rate ‘show prospect’ nor should they all be considered as breeding stock by virtue of the obvious fact that they share the same illustrious pedigree. This lack of common sense (or excessive greed, if the truth be revealed) is one of the primary factors that engenders severe anxiety for longtime mentors who are valiantly risking their own reputations to educate and represent novice breeders, just as their illustrious predecessors once did.
    It has historically been stressed that no individual can successfully breed a line of dogs without a very specific breed template in mind. Similarly, ethical breeders have always been taught to conscientiously remove from the breeding program all stock that failed to meet those criteria. This is the foundational motivation behind judging dogs and the primary protocol for assessing them in a show ring. Today’s version of novice unfortunately tends to reveal the stereotypical know-it-all who eagerly acquires a dozen differing bitches from equally as many breeders (often worldwide) and pack them right off to the top winning stud dogs in their breeds. Such blatantly shortsighted behavior is still preferable to nauseating scenario B. Consider the latter case wherein those same bitches are bred to the most local and convenient stud dog(s) the breeder can find or pick up inexpensively. The fact that these naïve newcomers are frequently financially raped by what should be ‘reputable’ dog breeders (especially overseas) is another issue entirely. Owing to a considerable lack of deep thinking or just glaring ignorance, countless modern breeders are more interested in health clearances than pedigrees and show records than prepotency. Health clearances are marvelous (we’ve promoted them for years ourselves) but they can never substitute for the intimate knowledge that will reveal exactly which lines tend to produce which defects. A series of health clearances achieved by a dog from a line that has consistently produced those defects is like a rubber sword. It’s not going to protect your breeding program in the end run. You may be inclined to disagree with this; but I would rather breed to a dog from a line I know rarely produces a certain defect even though my choice may have failed that test, than the previous candidate. Equally vitally, an experienced analysis of pedigree quality and depth is vital to the success of any breeding program. The inability to wisely apprehend each of these invaluable tools and utilize them from the standpoint of experience will render a pedigree little more than a fancy piece of paper and health statistics and show records no better than an interesting collection of facts. Widely available are wonderful books and new programs designed to help instruct the breeders of this era but again, I reiterate and strongly advocate; personal, individual mentorship has absolutely no substitute. Only a mentor can personally impart every detail of an intimate knowledge while role modeling ethical and conscientious conduct. Successful breedership is taught not bought!
    Herein lies my second key point today. Until a wannabe breeder develops a specific breed photograph (hopefully, based upon the breed standard) internally and makes the choice to honor proven, worthwhile mentors who will devote themselves to their pupils success, he will fail to create any long term impact on his chosen breed. Today’s candidates seem to compose a burgeoning group of rootless competitors that buy dogs left and right in each breed and hop right into the ring with them longing desperately for winnersŠor, at least wins. Every year they sport new dogs, new lines and a new look. It causes one to ponder precisely what happened to last year’s models! These people don’t have the groundwork to breed dogs of the merit they desire. Compare any such individual to another who is championed by successful mentors and is blessed with the wisdom and patience to actually heed their advice. Both individuals will output similar amounts of time and effort but the former, self-appointed orphan will nearly always struggle vainly and likely abandon the effort. Others just switch from breed to breed, hoping for better “luck.” Worse yet, many become bitter renegades determined to regain their initial investment one way or another. Perhaps the impact being sought currently is a different one than that so admired in previous decades. If the motivation is simply to “win, win, win!” and subsequently, “any dog will do you,” then our nation’s mentors really ought to step back, take a deep breath, uncurl their toes and fingers and let come what may. My assertion has long been, “Big winds blow over,” but perhaps in this case; “Big wins blow over,” would be more apropos. The end result of each individual’s efforts will eventually become visible in conformation and performance circles and in the annals of canine history, as it always has. However, the likelihood of this fast-food mentality (as applied to dog breeding) ever producing consistency in type, temperament or soundness is well beyond the realm of a slim chance and if it were to gain foothold, we would be forced to concede that the days of bloodlines and prepotent producers may be nigh over. These strangely inspired opportunists will still manage to produce winning dogs hither and yon but never two and three in the same litter. Moreover, such dogs will seldom pass on the characteristics that caused them to win in the first place. Flash-in-the-pan winners may even produce healthier pups in the short term owing to the blessing of outcross vigor but in the long run, the progress will not be sustained. It takes generations of working through genetic defects to breed them out to a very safe distance, if you know “the line” and what it tends to produce consistently that is. It also requires generations to breed in virtues that will reproduce faithfully.
    Allow me to relate an incident at this point. It’s a true story so I hope all prospective dog breeders will sit up and pay attention. When I was a teenager I worked very hard for a lady who raised German Shorthairs. One day she informed me we were going to clean a large kennel owned by a wealthy fancier of the breed. My mentor warned me to be wary of the dogs and not speak openly regardless of what I saw. The elderly fellow who owned the place was no longer able to manage the operation properly but she also insisted that he had been “an eccentric” all his life. In fact, that is what everyone in our area called this man, “eccentric.” Over a period of decades the patron had built a beautiful, full-fledged kennel with indoor/outdoor runs on a lovely parcel of acreage. Inside this brick facility were special rooms designated to breed, whelp and rear pups and even space for displaying show and field trophies. A small home on the property had been provided for live in kennel help. Large yards to exercise the dogs were overgrown while previously well-keept flowerbeds had withered away. In previous years they must have supplied a lovely grandeur to the exterior. Once inside the kennel, all lofty expectations fell desperately short. The dogs were as many types as one could ever dread coming across in any given breed. There were tall ones; short-legged ones, coarse headed and snipey dogs and not one that looked remotely like the next. There were friendly, tail-wagging dogs kenneled next to neurotic, circle-spinning, crazy dogs that would as soon bite you as look at you. To tell you the truth, it was rather nauseating. I had to seriously rethink the prospect of breeding dogs as a hobby for some time after we finished cleaning the kennel and departed. That chaos was the end result of decades of breeding based upon the incredibly mistaken premise that “winning is the only thing,” and little else mattered. What cemented the dismal failure in my young mind was the realization that the rewards (ribbons and trophies) accumulated over those decades were rendered utterly trivial and meaningless by the lack of consistent virtue in those dogs. This ‘breeder’s’ efforts provided nothing of value and in some ways, served to set the breed back locally. He had accumulated a few, tarnished trophies and wrinkled ribbons but nothing consequential was accomplished. If one can be satisfied with so little then I will admit that this fast-track mindset regarding dog breeding may be of an extremely limited value.
    Here is another case in point for those who feel personal mentoring should remain a lost art. An individual whom had migrated from another breed decided to focus an effort at linebreeding on the most prepotent stud dog of the past century. Although himself a dog of many grand virtues, he possessed equal and grievous faults that he managed to set into his offspring. His main fault was a weak, round headpiece featuring a narrow, triangular shaped muzzle (instead of the broad muzzle required) with its’ accompanying narrow, wry jaw. To a lesser degree, he was also straight stifled. Without the meticulous, personal mentoring that should have been provided in order to point out to this newcomer those serious deficits, they became quickly overlooked. As time passed, this confused individual concluded that the miserable headpiece that came to characterize that breeding program should be promoted as a correct feature for the entire breed. These dogs were widely advertised throughout the canine world until many judges began to accept this outlandish conglomeration of faults as an acceptable version of standard breed type. This tragedy may not have occurred if just one particularly prodigious breeder had been properly schooled individually regarding the correct utilization of the breed standard and modern bloodlines. A qualified mentor could have steered this novice around the immobilizing point of blind ignorance. Those judges who fail to read and apply breed standards and who judge by advertisement (familiar faces) alone do purebred dogs an equal disservice. Very often, a simple lack of proper tutoring is all it takes to instill a negative trend into any given breed.
    There are invaluable concepts becoming lost to our recent generation of dog breeders. Either that or the wrong shaped pegs are being pounded against their will into the incorrect holes by the stubbornly ignorant for lack of other suitable explanation. I cannot personally conclude that the dog world is so lacking in serious, experienced mentors as it is deplorably void of dedicated, loyal students who are determined to ‘mind their mentors’ and invest more than their silly, petty funds. Rather, let them invest something into the Sport of lasting value such as their time, talent and devotion. I would cheerfully trade ten thousand of these ridiculous, “Top-Ten-Syndrome” devotees with fistfuls of dollars for one modest, respectful and loyal breed student. Moreover I would prefer one without a spare penny. Such a prodigy will be far less wasteful with my precious bloodlines than some exasperating, bill-folding biped that deliriously suspects she can magically create a breeding program from thin air by waving a few bucks in the right direction. Deluded individuals are further inclined to believe that currency can induce lost bloodlines to reappear intact at a moment’s notice. I suppose that our longtime handlers feel equally plagued standing knee-deep in so many upstart “instant agents” who collect dogs to exhibit at sundry fees like garbage men do waste from our sidewalks on a weekly basis. This miserable misconduct readily explains what we end up with in our rings each weekend! Am I suggesting that all modern dog breeders are hopelessly sidetracked? By no means, only that peculiar faction that fit neatly into the trappings of the disclosed package. What if you wish to succeed as a novice breeder but dread falling into this pattern? How can you identify the wrong track if you are on it?
    Take the following rudimentary quiz to challenge yourself:
    1. How many bitches does it take to produce a quality line of dogs?

    a. Five (one from each of the top names in your breed)
    b. Ten (the above group plus one from each of the top breeders in Europe)
    c. Thirteen (one can never go wrong with a baker’s dozen!)
    d. As many as you can accumulate with the funds you have or can finance
    e. One good one from a reputable line

    2. How many puppies in each litter are show prospects if you have produced a typical litter of four well-bred pups?
    a. Four (they all came from the same parents and the same pedigree)
    b. Three (one is bound to be a pet and you have one pet home waiting as it turns out)
    c. Two (keep the best bitch and the best dog or the best two pups regardless of consistency)
    d. None of them until your mentor has helped you evaluate which to grow out.

    3. What actually constitutes pet quality?

    a. A serious genetic defect
    b. A breed disqualification
    c. A & B combined
    d. Bad temperament
    e. A, B & D combined
    f. A mediocre specimen regardless of pedigree
    g. Pet home waiting

    4. What actually constitutes a show prospect?

    a. No genetic defects
    b. No breed disqualifications
    c. Showy, outgoing attitude
    d. Loud color
    e. Good legs ­ this baby can really move out!
    f. Pretty face and fabulous coat
    g. An outgoing, outstanding breed representative with a solid pedigree to back it up.
    h. Show home waiting

    5. What is the difference between a “breeding quality dog” and a show quality dog?

    a. Breed disqualification(s)
    b. Good quality, poor temperament
    c. Ugly head, sound legs
    d. Pretty head, can’t move
    e. Great dog, lousy pedigree
    f. None of the above. There should be no difference.

    6. How many pups per litter do you need to keep to maintain a bloodline?

    a. Half the litter
    b. One dog, one bitch…just in case one is sterile or does not turn out.
    c. The two best bitches
    d. The whole litter, in case some don’t turn out or are sterile.
    e. The one pup that is better than it’s quality parents.
    f. How many bloodlines do you intend to work with at one time???

    7. How many litters per year do you need to produce to maintain your bloodline?

    a. Two if it’s an easy breed or five if it’s a hard breed to raise live litters out of.
    b. Three, in case the first two didn’t cut the mustard
    c. As many as possible without sending a red flag up at AKC
    d. Enough to cover all doggy expenses
    e. One, if it’s well thought out and carefully evaluated
    f. How many bloodlines do you intend to work with at one time???

    8. Why do you need a mentor and why should he or she help you evaluate your litters initially?
    a. You don’t, really. Take their good advice or leave it since it’s basically just another opinion.
    b. You only require a mentor long enough to obtain that quality dog.
    c. Anyone who will trust you with his or her life’s work will gratefully help you manage it properly. An ethical mentor will never intentionally steer you wrong and will work hard to see you succeed. Translation: your success is their success!
    d. ‘Mentor schmentor!’ Anything she can do, I can do better already.
    e. This is my third litter and I’m tired of growing out puppies. I want something that will WIN and I mean, NOW!
    f. Which mentors do you intend to work with now that you have all those bloodlines???

    9. What is the correct definition of a top quality litter of pups?

    a. None have breed disqualifications
    b. None have serious genetic defects
    c. None have poor temperaments
    d. All are ideally marked
    e. Half of the litter finished
    f. One pup became a Top Ten ranking show dog (gotta’ repeat this one right away!)
    g. The quality of the pups was equally distributed; the majority finished, the pedigree was solid, and they created a permanent, positive impact on the breed
    h. Both parents are champions
    i. Show homes waiting impatiently with money in hand.

    The correct answer is available in each category. Moreover, they are overt answers. Did you quickly arrive at them? If you were regularly drawn to multiple choices in each category and are confused at this point you definitely need a good mentor. If you aren’t sure whom to approach in your breed, ask around at dog shows. (Forget the Internet, you will merely come out showered with arrows!) Collect sufficient expert opinions to obtain a consensus. A quality mentor can document considerably more than a decade in their breed; will have produced many champions and one or more notable producers of that breed. Conscientious mentors carefully monitor the genetic defects within their lines throughout each generation and can prove it. Such individuals will desire to mentor only serious students, so please do not waste their time and break their hearts if you do not happen to be one of them. If you aren’t in this hobby for the long haul, please get out now while the getting is good. Successful dog breeding is about quality relationships, long-term investments, a dauntless love for dogs and conscientious determination. If your ideal hobby is all about winning and making a big name for yourself as quickly as possible, you are harboring an incognito loser mentality and what you really need is counseling. That’s a strong opinion. If you decide to stay, you will discover many more where that one came from. However, if you really love a certain breed of dog and your heart’s desire is to be intimately involved, produce a line of healthy, happy, sound dogs from proven bloodlines, then by all means find a good mentor or two and super glue yourself to them. If you are willing to become a lifelong student, can take advice humbly and gratefully from those who are willing to share their doggy endeavor, you deserve a good mentor. If respect ranks high in your personal vocabulary and you weren’t born knowing it all, you have the potential to contribute as a valuable member of doggy society. Honestly, I cannot recall even one top breeder I have known that succeeded entirely alone. One day you may discover that you are a dog breeder of renown and qualified to mentor students yourself! You will become absorbed in a worldwide community of dedicated, ethical, compassionate people who have embraced you slowly but surely.
    One word in admonition; if you are in the process of being mentored and choose to intentionally thwart prominent mentors who have taken you under their wings, the doggy world can become a very cold and lonely place all of a bloody sudden! (This is by no means a reference to honest mistakes which all of us can and do make regularly.) I remember one of the first individuals who ever mentored my husband and I. At a club meeting held in our home he hung back after everyone departed and confided in my ear, “These new people come in and they want you to help them get started. You help them and they turn around and put a knife in your back so you can never trust them again!” I cringed internally wondering if our club leader was on drugs or just an overly dramatic sort of fellow. At the time I thought it was a rather amusing incident. Years later I came to appreciate the full impact of his presumably paranoid statement. Anyone who has been in dogs for a decade is already mentoring newbies. It just happens naturally for most of us. At that early stage the process is rather akin to a teenager mentoring a toddler. A decade later there is a further transformation and we become adults leading teenagers. In each mentoring relationship there is mutual growth from differing aspects. That is how this mentoring relationship should progress. It is at the initial checkpoint that we are noting a bizarre glitch in the system, if you will. Around the five-year mark those students who should depart since they are unwilling to learn anyway, for various, insidious reasons – don’t. Instead, they tack up their own signs and go into business thumbing their noses openly at or even more commonly, behind the backs of their previous mentors. A few actually resort to destroying the reputations of their former mentors as a boorishly pathetic hobby.
    Reading every dog breeding and genetics manual ever manufactured won’t cut the mustard when such independent students actually try to breed litters from various bloodlines (especially those ridiculous, tossed-salad combinations thereof.) Half the time, these mentoring dropouts retain the wrong pups and let the outstanding prospects go, thus insuring their own failure. Without proper mentoring, they are literally lost amidst a world of pedigrees, canine husbandry and exhibition. Still, the foolishly proud would rather struggle alone than face the music and apologize to the honorable instructors they have grieved. I’ve watched such individuals attach strings to every pup they sell in mortal terror of repeating these dread foibles. A team of veterinarians will be less successful at diagnosing the various stages and odd quirks of those lines than one longtime breed mentor. In stubborn rebellion, these folks will rely upon any opinion other than that of a qualified expert. The number of lives of dogs saved by good mentoring is impossible to calculate but I would suspect at least a dozen for each successful mentor. Which is why it irks me to no end that some veterinarians treat all dog breeders like dirt bags. Technically, we are on the same team and it is beyond certain that we’ve saved lives their professional education and training could not. Whether veterinarian and dog breeder or mentor and student ­ it’s all about functional relationships. Lacking respect, no relationship will function. Yet daily we witness supposedly serious students of dog breeding or handling backstabbing their dedicated mentors!
    Mike and I have mentored newcomers to the world of purebred dogs for the entire duration of our marriage. I can recall few instances I have been as emotionally wounded by our own family members as I have by doggy individuals we chose to mentor. Perhaps it is human nature to become too controlling over those we mentor on occasion. We may overprotect them out of concern that others will misuse them. At the same time we strive to help them avoid making terrible mistakes. However, mentoring at this initially intense level should never extend beyond the point at which the pupil has actually advanced into a successful breeding program of his or her own. There must be a clear distinction between manipulation and guidance. Yet, release from quality mentoring can only be unwisely sought with the first champion produced or in the first five years of breeding for that matter. The use of poor judgment by the mentored is never as hard to swallow as utter disrespect without provocation. Foolish as it will undoubtedly seem to most of this reading audience, I sold many outstanding, young show prospects to complete novices. I remembered how difficult it was to obtain a quality dog. Equally importantly, I did not want my dogs in large operations or breeding kennels, stacked in crates in people’s basements or garages. So I stuck my neck out and took a chance on novices who kept their dogs at home, primarily as pets. Each of them made verbal and written promises. Only a handful lived up to their contractual agreements. Some of our mentored were extremely successful (the patient minority) while others ruined perfectly good dogs. One newbie we sold a quality pup to continually despaired that the dog would never reach its’ full potential. However, maturity occurred precisely when I insisted it would and the dog finished with a flourish. In fact, this dog continued to collect honors regularly until it began to win on a national level. This apparently happy conclusion was completely spoiled a short time later when I inquired to purchase a pup from the individual hoping to regain the bloodline that I had disbursed in order to more freely judge dogs. To my old fashioned way of thinking I believed my request would be received as an honor by the grateful novice, only to be quoted a price nearly twice that of the original stock with potential strings attached! In shock over this scandalous misbehavior, I was then formally advised, “It’s only business and that is the current pricing.”
    Whoahoahoaaa there, little doggeez! Let’s pause for a moment and analyze the statement that selling dogs is ‘strictly business.’ It wasn’t ‘way back’ when your mentor entrusted you with their foundation stock! Moreover, if you claim to bear any love for them whatsoever, dogs are never ‘strictly business.’ If they are, you are not a hobbyist – you are a profiteer and had better change your “buy from a breeder” motto to reflect your grasping mentality. Secondly, no student of a breed in the initial process of learning should ever charge top dollar for any puppy because he possesses neither the experience nor the credibility to back up that price tag. After you have endured a decade or two and have produced noteworthy, prepotent dogs that actually had some influence on your breed and when you are able to scrupulously manage and predict the general development of a bloodline as your mentor did, then and ONLY THEN charge a reflective price. You did not breed the dogs of note in those pedigrees that you are basing the outrageous prices upon, nor do you even remotely grasp the full impact of the innate faults and virtues harbored within those bloodlines. No photographs or second-hand rumors will ever reveal that information to you. Only a trusting, experienced mentor can offer those breeding shortcuts and such information will never intentionally be shared with a fool. Following in the wise footsteps of my own mentors, I failed to charge full price for a show prospect until I had fifteen years under my belt as a breeder. We rarely placed strings on any dog and only requested approximately five puppies back in all those years. We did not ask pick puppy for a stud service in those days nor ever required litters back on bitches sold. Our stud dogs, when at public stud, were offered at fees reflecting the PROVEN value of their get. There is a point that seems to have been reached in our modern dog world where hard-nosed business principles have completely overshadowed good sense and propriety. There are sufficient dog profiteers outside the legitimate Fancy; we certainly don’t desire any on the inside. Many dog breeders are visibly infected with a self-serving greed that has eroded their essential respect for mentors and minimized the true value of purebred dogs to such a degree that it is reducing an otherwise fine Sport to a paltry game. The reality is that the hearts of this generation must change for gracious, sensible conduct to reemerge in our world.
    In another frustrating case, a sympathetic, longtime mentor tucked under her wing what could only be described as an “iffy” candidate for mentoring. This student came from a most precarious position having purchased breeding stock from disreputable sources and selling it over a puppy miller’s network. However, the student seemed bent upon a course of integrity and cleared up the negative ties as requested. The candidate further insisted all mediocre stock was disbursed and began health-testing the few quality dogs on the premises. The mentorship ensued and the pupil was able to finish a high quality dog of superior pedigree with the guidance of the breed expert. Naturally, the mentor was contacted again in order to help select the appropriate mate. The mentor pored over pedigrees of available dogs at the request of the student until an excellent choice emerged. At the pupil’s further request, the mentor offered herself as a reference since the stud owner was quite discriminating. Suddenly in midcourse, the pupil jumped ship and decided instead to breed to an untitled dog with an incompatible pedigree. The motivations were supposedly financial and for the sake of simplification. A very old, mediocre quality dog was provided the pupil without charge from a calculating source that only requested “a puppy back in return.” The clever, second-rate breeder was thereby able to seduce the naive student and acquire stock from a bloodline that was previously unavailable without investing a penny. Moreover, an unwanted dog at retirement age was conveniently disposed of at the same time from a sizeable kennel operation. When the mentor was informed of this treachery, she replied calmly and candidly, “If it were possible to breed high quality dogs conveniently and cheaply, every dog breeder in America would be equally successful.” Consequently, in both cases the mentors severed all ties with these (sic) ‘serious students’ of their breed.
    What other course can ensue when mentors apply full effort and skill toward the success of individuals who later proffer the proverbial “knife-in the-back” treatment? One could wish to label these pupils’ sophomoric actions “poor judgment,” but the greedy motivations behind them would swiftly nullify those otherwise inert descriptions. These are but two examples plucked from among dozens of graceless incidences mentors around the country are reporting regularly, obviously increasing the number of abandoned or dropout students each year. The only reward any mentor is ever granted for his or her personal investment is the satisfaction of shaping a successful and ethical patron for their breed. After several such devastating experiences in the lives of longtime mentors, it is little wonder so few will extend their time and talent to the continually inquiring newbies vying for their attention. It is seldom true that the dog world’s finest canine mentors are, as so commonly characterized, “stuck up,” but rather that they have simply been burned emotionally one too many times. If you are a student of a breed; please don’t confuse emotional distancing with arrogance since they aren’t remotely alike. If you would be mentored by one of America’s renowned Doggites, you may find it necessary to prove your loyalty to them and their dogs first.
    “Bloodlines,” as we once acknowledged them, are fast disappearing. The remnants of those precious, former hardwoods are being sold as a commodity to the highest bidders both here and abroad. In the place of the elaborate effort that once hallmarked a lifelong craft one discovers pressed board covered over with cheap laminates. Is it possible that the invocation of genetic charting in some fashion has ended America’s reverence for bloodlines? Or is it merely the saturation of equal amounts of greed and egomania on the part of today’s foundationally disengaged crew of incoming dog breeders that is to blame? The principles that have long sustained dog breeding, as applied both intellectually and instinctively are clearly on the wane. In direct repercussion, mentoring has become a most precarious proposition for all who compose the framework of the Sport of Dogs. Will educating breeders with the intact blanket approach resolve these issues? We will be most fortunate if this program can manage a nip at their fast wilting buds. If public education could instill ethics and character this program could be deemed feasible, however, individual mentoring (like the parenting role that it has always evoked) remains the only practical, proven and effective means by which to tackle such perplexing problems and that process is entirely dependent upon willing and worthy students. It occurs to me that in order for a breeder education program to succeed, there must be a valid mentorship program firmly in residence. Recruitment for qualified, mentoring volunteers to act as “big brothers” to novice breeders will prove absolutely essential. No family is functional without diligent parents nor will any breeder educational system flourish minus experienced, conscientious mentors. If those prerequisites could be met, it still remains to be seen whether or not there exists a sufficient headcount enrolling in breeder education to salvage the future of an entire nation’s purebred dog Fancy.


    Posted in Breeding | 13 Comments

    Dr. W. v. Kerkhoven about “knuckling over” in young dogs

    Problems during the growth period in puppies – what to do ?

    Did you see examples of knuckling over (bowed limbs) or other bone deformations on young growing dogs in your kennel or at home ? Of course, but what are the reasons ? Can we solve the problem or not ?
    Following conditions are the most common seen in young growing puppies and can be categorized as ‘Developmental Orthopedic Diseases’:

    1. Carpel Flexural Deformity or “Knuckling Over or Bowed Legs”,
    2. HOD – Hypertrophic Osteodystrophy,
    3. OCD – Osteochondritis Dissecans,
    4. Panosteoitis.

    Knuckling over (bowed limbs) is the main problem normally seen and is not genetic, it happens to all breeds, large or small and it is due to how you are managing your dogs dietary needs and the flooring you are keeping them on to develop. Poor quality diet or too much of a good food, poor footing/slick floors with no rugs, and missing trace minerals. All things that contribute to this problem. If caught early enough it can be reversed with no problem. If left, it causes permanent damage. Knuckling over is first noticed in the area of front leg on a puppy, or the growth plate (wrist or carpal but also shoulder; the dog can be lame) area due to a lack of integrity in the muscle, tendon and ligaments. It is due to uneven growth pattern between the bone and tissue/muscle of the puppy. A diet can cause uneven growth patterns between muscles, ligaments, tendons and bones. They are all developing at different rates – the end results are severe knuckling over and this grotesque deformation can be permanent if not taken care of a proper diet in the early stages. Under 8 weeks of age, it is not a problem and very common because the large and giant breeds grow quickly during the early stages of development.

    Inappropriate feeding as a cause of bone deformations – Don’ts !:

    1. a combination of two different types or brands of dog foods – feeding (50/50)
    2. change the brand or type of food several times (3-4) times
    3. the addition of poor quality vitamins/minerals to a diet (not from whole foods)
    4. feed human foods in amounts enough to disrupt the calcium/phosphorus balance
    5. feed too many calories vs. the amount of free exercise the dog et on a daily bases
    6. feeding a pet food that has minerals that are not very available to the body – crude forms
    7. feeding diets lacking in vital micro minerals or trace minerals
    8. feeding too much of a well-balanced, high quality-food


    Most of the growth problems in puppies are linked to a too high calorie intake (over nutrition) or not adapted calcium level of the diet to the breed size.

    Supplementation for puppies is still a need in avoiding other problems as for example skin or gastro-intestinal disorders. But please make sure those supplements are adapted to puppies in their growth period : calcium level must be adapted to the breed size (1.2% for small & medium breed dogs, 0.8% for large & giant breed dogs) and may not provide too much calories to the puppy.

    Viyo Elite, a high palatable nutritional drink, is safe to feed to growing puppies. Beside the positive effects on skin & coat health, gastro-intestinal health, muscle tone and joint health, it is also adapted to growing puppies due to the low calorie content and adapted level of calcium to the breed size.

    Dr. Wim Van Kerkhoven – Viyo International

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